Name for a generative, that is sexual reproduction with the parenting of at least two different grape varieties, as for example in the new breed of grape varieties is the case. The one species acts as a mother plant, where the berries ripen with the fertilized seeds, the other variety provides as a parent the pollen for pollination of the scars and fertilization of the maternal ovules (see also in detail under blossom and hermaphrodite flower ). Since the mid-1990s, it has become the worldwide standard, the descent of grape varieties through DNA analysis to determine. It is also possible, the crossing direction (who was the mother, who was the father). When specifying the crossing parents, the mother variety is always mentioned in the first place in the breeding lists. Four new breeds:
The fertilized ovules result in progeny that, according to Mendel's laws of inheritance, each contain half of the randomly recombined properties of both parents. Unlike spontaneously occurring mutations leading to the emergence of slightly different grape varieties, somatic chimeric and varietal variants are required for sexual reproduction always two parent varieties, their crossbred products, the seedlings, each one for themselves an individual genotype having new properties. These are often used for further crossings. Four classic grape varieties from natural crosses:
A new vine is usually through pollination created with pollen from another grape variety (although there are also rare crosses between different species) Clone of the same variety). This is a female flower bud the variety A is pollinated with the male pollens of the variety B. There are three ways of crossing. In viticulture only interspecific and intergeneric crosses are considered hybrids Although this is actually the case for intraspecific
The crossing of two grape varieties (crossbreeding) is in addition to the selection breeding (cloning selection or cloning breeding) and mutation breeding (mutagenic mutagenic substances) one of the possible breeding methods - see below breeding, In contrast, the manipulative stands Genetic Engineering, at the desired properties such as resistance against fungal diseases or against frost by altering the genome. See also below Parent-offspring relationship and Vines systematics, A list of relevant keywords about grape variety is under grapevine contain.
Pictures: Ursula Bruehl, Doris Schneider, Julius Kühn Institute (JKI)