A process known as "cold maceration" (cryo = cold) in the preparation of mainly red wine, which is still before fermentation (a similar process in white wine production is the Maceration ). It was in the early 1970s in the Burgundy through the Lebanese oenologistsGuy Accad propagated and first in France . Italy and Australia popular. By a special digestion of the mash should more primary primary flavor , this means fruitier fruity Grape flavors gently extracted extraction become. Unlike the conventional one maceration In the opinion of the advocate for the later wine, a different or more optimal composition of the extracted phenols reached. The process is not uncontroversial and there are controversial opinions. The main criticisms are that thus uniform wines without down-to-earth character or recognizable terroir be generated. Besides, you will Aging ability aging denied. Red wines produced in such a way become (pejoratively) as Coca-Cola wines or Fruit bombs fruit bomb bezeichnet.
Die Maische wird niedrigen bzw. kalten Temperaturen von 4 bis 15 °Celsius ausgesetzt. Die Dauer richtet sich nach der Temperatur - je kühler, desto länger, von wenigen Stunden bis zu in der Regel 7 aber nach anderen Quellen auch bis 14 Tagen. Die Kühlung erfolgt mit Cryogenen (Kühlmitteln) wie festem designated.
The mash is exposed to low or cold temperatures of 4 to 15 ° Celsius. The duration depends on the temperature - the cooler, the longer, from a few hours to usually 7 but according to other sources also up to 14 days. The cooling is done with cryogenic (coolants) as solid carbon dioxide (Dry ice), or liquid carbon dioxide or nitrogen , The Yeast propagation yeasts is severely restricted and thus the alcoholic fermentation inhibited and possibly prevented. The cold shock leads to greater water volume in the grapes and with the self-weight pressure of the mash to break up the cellular membrane (cell cracking).
The consequence is the release of Anthocyanins Anthocyanins . Tannins tannins . Flavorings flavorings and poly saccharides saccharides , But this is much slower than in the presence of alcohol , After completion of the process, the mash must be warmed to over 20 ° Celsius and thus the alcoholic fermentation be initiated. The red wines are characterized by milder, fuller, fruity and sweetish taste, as well as stronger or darker colour out. Another procedure under cold conditions is cryoextraction (see concentration ). But there is also a "hot maceration" with a very similar objective, by means of mash heating he follows.
Complete listings of the numerous vinification measures and cellar techniques, as well as the wine-regulated wine, sparkling wine and distillate types are under the keyword winemaking contain. Comprehensive information on wine law is available under the keyword Wine Law .