A process also called "cold maceration" (cryo = cold) in the preparation of mainly red wine, which before the fermentation (a similar process for white wine making is Maceration ). It was built in the early 1970s Burgundy through the Lebanese oenologistsGuy Accad propagated and first in France . Italy and Australia popular. A special disintegration of the mash is supposed to do more primary primary flavor , this means fruitier fruity Grape aromas gentle extracted extraction become. In contrast to the conventional maceration according to the advocates, a different or more optimal composition of the extracted wine for the later wine phenols reached. The process is not without controversy and there are controversial opinions. The main criticisms are that this means uniform wines without a down-to-earth character or recognizable terroir be generated. Besides, they will Aging ability aging denied. Red wines produced in this way are considered (pejorative) Coca-Cola wines or Fruit bombs fruit bomb bezeichnet.
Die Maische wird niedrigen bzw. kalten Temperaturen von 4 bis 15 °Celsius ausgesetzt. Die Dauer richtet sich nach der Temperatur - je kühler, desto länger, von wenigen Stunden bis zu in der Regel 7 aber nach anderen Quellen auch bis 14 Tagen. Die Kühlung erfolgt mit Cryogenen (Kühlmitteln) wie festem designated.
The mash is exposed to low or cold temperatures of 4 to 15 ° Celsius. The duration depends on the temperature - the cooler the longer, from a few hours up to usually 7 but also up to 14 days according to other sources. The cooling takes place with cryogens (coolants) like solid carbon dioxide (Dry ice), or liquid carbon dioxide or nitrogen , The Yeast propagation yeasts is severely restricted and thus alcoholic fermentation is inhibited and possibly prevented. The cold shock leads to a larger volume of water in the grapes and with the self-weight pressure of the mash to break up the cellular membrane (cell cracking).
The result is the release of Anthocyanins Anthocyanins . Tannins tannins . Flavorings flavorings and poly saccharides saccharides , However, this takes place much more slowly than in the presence of alcohol , After the process has been completed, the mash must be heated to over 20 ° Celsius and the alcoholic fermentation initiated. The red wines are characterized by milder, fuller, more fruity and sweeter taste, as well as stronger or darker colour out. Another method under cold conditions is cryoextraction (see under concentration ). But there is also a "hot maceration" with a very similar objective, which means mash heating he follows.
Complete lists of the numerous vinification measures or cellar techniques, as well as the wine, sparkling wine and distillate types regulated by wine law are under the keyword winemaking contain. There is extensive wine law information under the keyword Wine Law .