In 1993 were from the former state Czechoslovakia the independent states Slovakia and the Czech Republic. Viticulture has a common history that goes up to the Celts declining. In the 3rd century AD, Emperor Marcus Aurelius invaded Probus (232-282) Roman legionnaires to South Moravia before and established in today's Znojemská (Znojmo) land vineyards. The first heyday reached the winegrowing in the 9th century at the time of the Great Moravian Empire. As in many other countries, especially the monasteries exerted a positive influence, because they needed altar wine, It was especially the founded in 1190 Premonstratensian monastery Louka at Znojmo out. This order was strongly influenced by the ideals of Cistercian influenced and operated as this professional viticulture. During the Middle Ages, many cities and monasteries flourished vineyards. The Thirty Years' War (1618-1648) saw a great decline. The mildew and the first occurring in Satov in 1890 phylloxera got the rest.
In the 20th century was a reconstruction with newly planted, international varieties, The vineyards in the Czech Republic are among the northern growing areas of Europe. In 2012, 470,000 hectoliters of wine were produced by 17,000 hectares of vineyards. There are 384 winegrowing communities with around 19,000 winegrowers, often with smallest areas of less than one hectare. The Czech Republic is divided into the two historical landscapes Čechy (Bohemia) and Morava (Moravia) , which also gave its name to the two wine-growing areas (with a total of six sub-areas). There is a continental climate with warm and dry growing season and dry, cool autumn. Two thirds of the production are white wines and one third are red wines. The Blend 2010:
|vine||colour||Synonyms or Czech name||hectare|
|Green Valtellina||White||Veltlínské Zelené||1527|
|Pinot Blanc||White||Rulandské Bílé, Burgundy Bílé||732|
|Pinot Gris||White||Rulandské Šedé, Rulandské, Burgundské Šedé||706|
|Pinot Noir||red||Rulandské Modré, Burgundské Modré||688|
|Blue Portuguese||red||Modrý Portugal, Portugalské Modré||622|
|Gewurztraminer / Traminer||White||Brynšt, Prync, Tramín Bíly, Tramín Červený||601|
|Muskát Moravský||White||MOPR, Moravian nutmeg||351|
|Frühroter Veltliner||White||Veltlínské Cervené Rané||217|
|Irsai Olivér||White||Irsay Oliver||69|
|Muscat Ottonel||White||Muskát Ottonel||60|
|Cerason||red||Cerazon, MI 5-100||?|
|Muscat Blanc / muscatel||White||Muškát Žlutý||?|
|Red and white Veltliner||White||Veltlínské Červenobílé||?|
The wine-growing area Moravia (Morava) named after the river March (Morava ) lies in the southeast of the country. The vineyards cover 96% of the Czech vineyards and lie between Brno and the Austrian border on the Danube tributaries Svratka (Schwarzach), Morava (March) and Dyje (Thaya). The first vineyards were already created by Roman legionnaires. Emperor Charles IV (1316-1378), who ordered the creation of vineyards, made the biggest upswing in the Middle Ages. From a geological point of view, the Moravian wine-growing region is divided into the western part with the foothills of the Bohemian Massif and the eastern part with the Western Carpathians. Moravia is divided into four subareas:
The sub-area Mikulovská covers 4,432 hectares of vineyards on the southern slopes of the Pálava in 30 municipalities. The most important are Bavory, Brod nad Dyjí, Dolní Dunajovice, Klentnice, Lednice, Mikulov, Napajedly, Novosedly, Pavlov, Perná, Popice, Pouzdoany, Sedlec u Mikulova, Strachotin and Valtice Viticultural Center. It is the warmest area. The calcareous soils consist of clay, mudstone and loess. The best wines are made from Welschriesling, Chardonnay, Pinot Blanc and Müller-Thurgau.
The subdivision Slovácká (Moravian Slovakia) covers 4,188 hectares of vineyards in 117 municipalities such. B. Blatnice, Breclav, Bzenec, Čejkovice, Dolni Bijanovice, Kyjov, Hluk, Moravská Nová Ves, Mutenice, Napajedly, Petrov, Podluzi, Polesovice, Stráznice and Uherské Hradiste. In Čejkovice in 1232 the Knights Templar founded a fortress with extensive cellars. The old tradition continues wine cooperative "Templářské sklepy" (templar cellar). About 650 meters of underground passageways are accessible as a tourist attraction. The white varieties Riesling, Pinot Blanc and Pinot Gris, as well as the red varieties Blaufränkisch , Zweigelt and Cabernet Moravia, bred in Moravská Nová Ves, thrive in this winegrowing area. Two very well known wines are Bzenecká Lipka from Bzenec and Blatnicky Rohac from Blatnice.
The largest sub-area Velkopavlovická covers 4,741 hectares of vineyards in 75 municipalities. Important ones are Brno, Cejkovice, Klobouky u Brna, Nemcicky, Hustopece, Velké Pavlovice, Velké Bílovice and Zidlochovice. The floors are made of loam and loess. Here are excellent red wines from Blue Portugal and Blaufränkisch , as well as white wines from Grüner Veltliner, Traminer, Neuburger and Moravian Muscat.
In the Znojemská subdivision, viticulture peaked in the time of the Great Moravian Empire, when Prince Svatopluk called "Magnus" (+894) vines from the present day Austria and Hungary plant. The city of Znojmo has always been an important wine-growing center. Under the city are many wine cellars with long, labyrinthine corridors created. The vineyard covers 3,153 hectares in 90 communities. The most important ones are Dolni Kounice, Hnanice, Hodonice, Horni Dunajovice, Ivancice, Miroslav, Novy Saldorf, Satov, Syrovice, Tasovice, Vrbovec and Znojmo. The soil consists of gravel with loam and loess. The most common varieties are Grüner Veltliner, Müller-Thurgau, Riesling, Blaufränkisch and St. Laurent. A well-known operation is Znovin Znojmo,
The region of Bohemia is named after the Celtic tribe of the Boi and comprises about two-thirds of the Czech Republic in the west. Bohemian winegrowing flourished under the reign of Emperor Rudolf II (1552-1612), when there were around 3,500 hectares of vineyards. Today's winegrowing area Čechy (Bohemia) with 653 hectares covers only one sixth, which does not even make up 4% of the total vineyard area. The vineyards are located on slopes in the vicinity of the rivers Berounka (Beraun), Labe (Elbe), Ohře (Eger) and Vltava (Moldau), the majority of them north of the state capital Praha (Prague). The area is divided into two subareas:
The sub-area Litomerická covers 293 hectares in 30 municipalities. The most important are Litomerice, Most Chrámce, Mostecko, Lovosice, Velké Zernoseky and Vrbice. In the Middle Ages, Litomerice was the second largest wine-growing town in Bohemia after Prague. In 1251 the Cistercian in Zernoseky large wine cellars dig and founded vineyards. Here are mainly white wines from Riesling, Pinot Gris, Pinot Blanc and Müller-Thurgau, and red wines from St. Laurent and Blauer Portugieser produced.
The sub-area Mělnická covers 360 hectares of vineyards in 42 municipalities. Known are Karlstejn (with research station for viticulture), Mělník, Kutná Hora, Kralupy nad Vltavou and Praha. The vineyards are located on calcareous ground of marly layers, covered with mud and sand alluviums. These are good for the red varieties Pinot Noir, Blue Portuguese and St. Laurent. However, the most common variety is Müller-Thurgau.
Wine categories : These are based as in Austria and Germany on the Mostgewicht the grapes; 1 NM (Normalizovaný Moštoměr) = 1 kg of sugar per 100 l Mos. The wines are tested and graded by the Food and Agricultural Control Authority (SZPI). In 2004 the quality category Víno Originální Certifikace (VOC) was created. Such wines must at least meet the criteria for quality wine, but are compared to the other wines by a wine cooperative whose members are allowed to produce this wine. The right to award the VOC designation is granted under strict conditions by the Czech Ministry of Agriculture. A wine with certificate of origin must be typical of the particular area and grape variety.
In August 2009, the EU wine market regulations became valid for all member countries with fundamental changes to the wine names and quality levels. There are the following new names or quality levels (see also in detail under quality system ):
Prädikatsweine (Jakostní Víno s Prívlastkem)
Special wine names / types