In 1993 the former state became Czechoslovakia the independent states Slovakia and the Czech Republic. Viticulture has a common history that goes back to the Celts declining. In the 3rd century AD, Emperor Marcus Aurelius invaded Probus (232-282) Roman legionaries to South Moravia and planted vineyards in what is now Znojemská. Winegrowing reached its first heyday in the 9th century during the Great Moravian Empire. As in many other countries, the monasteries in particular had a positive influence because they needed it altar wine, Particularly noteworthy was the Premonstratensian monastery Louka near Znojmo. This order was strong from the ideals of the Cistercian influenced and operated like this professional viticulture. During the Middle Ages, vineyards bloomed around many towns and monasteries. The Thirty Years' War (1618-1648) caused a great decline. The mildew and the one that first appeared in Satov in 1890 phylloxera did the rest.
In the 20th century it was rebuilt with newly planted, international ones varieties, The vineyards in the Czech Republic are among the northern regions of Europe. In 2012, 470,000 hectoliters of wine were produced from 17,000 hectares of vineyards. There are 384 winegrowing communities with around 19,000 winegrowers, often with the smallest areas of less than one hectare. The Czech Republic is divided into the two historical landscapes Čechy (Bohemia) and Morava (Moravia) , which also gave the name to the two wine-growing areas (with a total of six sub-areas). There is a continental climate with warm and dry growing season and dry, cool autumn. Two thirds of the production are white wines and one third are red wines. The Blend 2010:
|vine||colour||Synonyms or Czech name||hectare|
|Green Valtellina||White||Veltlínské Zelené||1527|
|Pinot Blanc||White||Rulandské Bílé, Burgundské Bílé||732|
|Pinot gris||White||Rulandské Šedé, Rulandské, Burgundské Šedé||706|
|Pinot Noir||red||Rulandské Modré, Burgundské Modré||688|
|Blue Portuguese||red||Modrý Portugal, Portugalské Modré||622|
|Gewurztraminer / Traminer||White||Brynšt, Prync, Tramín Bíly, Tramín Červený||601|
|Muskát Moravský||White||MOPR, Moravian nutmeg||351|
|Frühroter Veltliner||White||Veltlínské Červené Rané||217|
|Irsai Olivér||White||Irsay Oliver||69|
|Muscat Ottonel||White||Muskat Ottonel||60|
|Cerason||red||Cerazon, MI 5-100||?|
|Muscat Blanc / muscatel||White||Muškát Žlutý||?|
|Red and white Veltliner||White||Veltlínské Červenobílé||?|
The Moravian wine region, named after the March (Morava) river, is located in the southeast of the country. The vineyards cover 96% of the Czech vineyard area and are located between Brno and the Austrian border on the Danube tributaries Svratka (Schwarzach), Morava (March) and Dyje (Thaya). The first vineyards were created by Roman legionaries. Emperor Charles IV (1316-1378), who ordered the cultivation of vineyards, made a name for the greatest boom in the Middle Ages. From a geological point of view, the Moravian wine region is divided into the western part with the foothills of the Bohemian Massif and the eastern part with the western Carpathians. Moravia is divided into four sub-areas:
The Mikulovská sub-area comprises 4,432 hectares of vines on the southern slopes of the Paulava Mountains in 30 municipalities. The most important are Bavory, Brod nad Dyjí, Dolní Dunajovice, Klentnice, Lednice, Mikulov, Napajedly, Novosedly, Pavlov, Perná, Popice, Pouzdoany, Sedlec u Mikulova, Strachotín and with Valtice Wine Center. It is the warmest area. The calcareous soils consist of clay, clay stone and loess. The best wines are made from Welschriesling, Chardonnay, Pinot Blanc and Müller-Thurgau.
The sub-area Slovácká (Moravian Slovakia) covers 4,188 hectares of vineyards in 117 municipalities such as B. Blatnice, Breclav, Bzenec, Čejkovice, Dolní Bijanovice, Kyjov, Hluk, Moravská Nová Ves, Mutenice, Napajedly, Petrov, Podluzi, Polesovice, Stráznice and Uherské Hradiste. In Čejkovice in 1232 the Knights Templar founded a fortress with extensive cellars. It ties in with the old tradition wine cooperative “Templářské sklepy” (Templar cellar). Around 650 meters of the underground passageways are accessible as a tourist attraction. The white varieties Riesling, Pinot Blanc and Pinot Gris thrive in this winegrowing area, as well as the red varieties Blaufränkisch , Zweigelt and Cabernet Moravia grown in Moravská Nová Ves. Two are very well known wines Bzenecká Lipka from Bzenec and Blatnicky Rohac from Blatnice.
The largest sub-area Velkopavlovická covers 4,741 hectares of vineyards in 75 municipalities. Important ones are Brno, Cejkovice, Klobouky u Brna, Nemcicky, Hustopece, Velké Pavlovice, Velké Bílovice and Zidlochovice. The floors are made of loam and loess. Excellent red wines from Blauer Portugieser and Blaufränkisch , as well as white wines from Grüner Veltliner, Traminer, Neuburger and Moravian Muscat grow here.
In the Znojemská sub-area, viticulture reached a peak at the time of the Great Moravian Empire, when Prince Svatopluk “Magnus” (+894) vines from today's Austria and Hungary planted. The city of Znojmo has always been an important wine-growing center. There are many wine cellars under the city with long, labyrinthine corridors. The vineyard area comprises 3,153 hectares in 90 municipalities. The most important are Dolní Kounice, Hnanice, Hodonice, Horní Dunajovice, Ivancice, Miroslav, Novy Saldorf, Satov, Syrovice, Tasovice, Vrbovec and Znojmo. The floors are made of gravel with loam and loess. The most common varieties are Grüner Veltliner, Müller-Thurgau, Riesling, Blaufränkisch and St. Laurent. A well-known company is Znovin Znojmo,
The Bohemia region is named after the Celtic Boier tribe and comprises around two thirds of the Czech Republic in the west. Bohemian viniculture flourished under the reign of Emperor Rudolf II (1552-1612), at that time there were around 3,500 hectares of vineyards. Today's Čechy (Bohemia) wine growing area comprises 653 hectares, which is only one sixth, which is less than 4% of the total area under vines. The vineyards are located on the slopes of the Berounka (Beraun), Labe (Elbe), Ohře (Eger) and Vltava (Moldau) rivers, the majority of which are north of the state capital of Prague (Prague). The area is divided into two sub-areas:
The Litomerická sub-area covers 293 hectares in 30 municipalities. The most important are Litomerice, Most-Chrámce, Mostecko, Lovosice, Velké Zernoseky and Vrbice. In the Middle Ages, Litomerice was the second largest wine-growing community in Bohemia after Prague. In 1251 the Cistercian excavate extensive wine cellars in Zernoseky and founded vineyards. White wines from Riesling, Pinot Gris, Pinot Blanc and Müller-Thurgau, as well as red wines from St. Laurent and Blauer Portugieser are mainly produced here.
The Mělnická sub- area comprises 360 hectares of vines in 42 municipalities. Known are Karlstejn (with research station for viticulture), Mělník, Kutná Hora, Kralupy nad Vltavou and Praha. The vineyards are located on a calcareous layer of marl, which is covered with alluvial deposits of clay and sand. These are well suited for the red varieties Blauburgunder, Blauer Portugieser and St. Laurent. However, the most common variety is Müller-Thurgau.
Wine categories : As in Austria and Germany, these are based on the Mostgewicht the grapes; 1 NM (Normalizovaný Moštoměr) = 1 kg sugar per 100 l Mos. The wines are checked and classified by the Authority for Agricultural and Food Control (SZPI). In 2004 the Víno Originální Certifikace (VOC) quality category was created. Such wines must at least meet the criteria for quality wine, but are distinguished from other wines by one wine cooperative classified, whose members are allowed to produce this wine. The right to issue the VOC designation is granted under strict conditions by the Czech Ministry of Agriculture. A wine with a certificate of origin must be typical of the area and grape variety.
In August 2009, the EU wine market regulations came into force for all member countries, with fundamental changes to the wine names and quality levels. There are the following new names and quality levels (see also in detail under quality system ):
Prädikatsweine (Jakostní Víno s Prívlastkem)
Special wine names / types