Old name from the Alemannic for a intoxication; see there also many other expressions for intoxication or excessive consumption of alcohol.
General term for an emotional state of exaggerated ecstasy or an intense feeling of happiness that lifts someone beyond his normal emotional state. Such a condition is caused among other things by psychotropic substances. These are substances that influence the human psyche. Depending on the active ingredient, this is associated with disturbances of the state of consciousness, cognitive abilities, perception, affect and behavior. As a result, the intoxication by enjoyment of alcohol treated. Overconsumption of alcohol causes disinhibition, increased emotionality, memory inhibition, numbness and overconfidence. In early civilizations, excessive consumption of alcohol on certain occasions was a ritualized custom until it was completely consumed by drunkenness. Until the Middle Ages, excessive intoxication was considered normal. From the 16th century it was ostracized and from the 19th century increasingly as a disease ( alcoholism ).
The state of intoxication is a state of arousal or twilight lasting for a few minutes, usually accompanied by a misunderstanding of the situation in the form of hallucinations and always leaving a complete or partial amnesia (loss of memory). In the case of alcohol intoxication, mental disinhibition first occurs, an increased urge to speak and to move, with a frequent transition to depression and aggression, which can increase to the point of destructiveness. After the decay of intoxication, they often show up as hangover designated poisoning after-effects. Alcohol consumption leads in stages of well-being and feelings of happiness in extreme cases to complete frenzy and may even end in death. The stages of development in thousandth :
The tolerability of alcohol, that is, the amount of which it enters into a state of intoxication, depends on age, physical constitution, gender, type of person, and drinking speed. Women and especially East Asians, indigenous peoples of America and Aboriginal Australia have less ADH, ALDH and other degradation enzymes and are drunk faster and longer. An entirely different criterion is the health-compatible or harmless amount of alcohol with regular (daily) enjoyment. This is stated differently in the relevant literature and varies considerably between 20 to 60 grams of alcohol daily (see below health ). Alcohol has high nutritional value, around 95% are converted into energy.
The consumed alcohol goes first from the stomach (20%) and small intestine (80%) into the bloodstream and then into the body tissue (resorption). The division depends on the amount of blood (about 5 to 7l) and the body size or body area, the more extensive, the better the alcohol is distributed. However, fatty tissue hardly absorbs alcohol. Therefore, in a tall, lean person alcohol is more distributed and there is relatively less concentration of alcohol in the blood compared to a small, fat person. The intake is relatively slow and is (depending on the stomach contents) completed only one to two hours after drinking. The calculation of the alcohol level is below Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAK) described.
With the intoxication as therapy, many scientists of the 18th and 19th century and especially wine was considered as an ideal drink to get into this euphoric state, but always society was assumed (excessive drinking alone is evidence of possible alcohol dependence) , The German naturalist Gottfried Leibniz (1646-1716) was also concerned with his theory of the monadic soul and its inability to perceive the "subcritical" movements of the environment while awake. Only the slight intoxication sharpens the senses and expands the sensual horizon of experience. The US psycho-pharmacologist Ronald K. Siegel writes in the book " intoxicated drugs in animals and humans" that intoxication as the fourth impulse as well as sex, hunger and thirst can ever be suppressed .
The famous Greek philosopher Kostis Papajorgis (* 1940) develops a philosophy of passion for the delirium from Homer to Baudelaire and Dostoyevsky to Jack London in the essay "The Intoxication - A Philosophical Aperitif". Far from defending the stupefaction of everyday worries or a lumbering society, Papajorgis reports on the true intoxication, the secret of...