French term for the removal of the yeast (sludge, de-yeasting) used in the production of sparkling wine ( sparkling wine. champagne ) in the bottle fermentation arises. The process takes place after the remuage (Shaking), in which the yeast residues are successively conveyed into the bottle neck. Before the remuage was invented, the residue was not removed, but the bottles of cul-en-l'air (with the bottle bottom stored) and marketed. There are two different methods of disgorgement:
The process that is now only used in smaller companies (dégorgement à la ancienne = traditional, ancient; dégorgement à la volée = with verve) is relatively complex and requires great skill and experience. The Capsules is removed with a Dégorgier hook. Make sure that when shooting out the yeast set, not too much sparkling wine or carbonic acid get lost. The degorgeur holds the bottle closed with the thumb of his left hand and checks the clarity of the wine. An experienced degresser can process up to 400 bottles an hour, which is 8 to 10 seconds per bottle.
The method that is mostly used today (dégorgement à la glace = ice cream) was invented by the Frenchman Armand Walfard-Binet (member of the champagne house Binet invented in Reims) and patented in 1884. After the ice machine was invented by Carl von Linde (1842-1934), it was patented in Germany in 1895 as the Walfard process. The neck of the bottle is placed in an ice-cold saline solution (minus 15 to 35 ° C). The alcohol content of the yeast in the bottle neck does not freeze, but it does get a mushy consistency. After removing the crown cap, the yeast plug shoots out. Due to the cold, the carbonic acid is also quite calm and, in contrast to warm disgorging, remains almost completely in the bottle. In larger companies, the process is mostly automated. The video (click to view) shows the manual process in the champagne house Philipponnat; you can see the yeast in the bottle neck:
After the disgorgement, the shipping Dosage and the final closure by means of a specially made compared to still wine cork, Many producers store the sparkling wine for at least three months before marketing, so that it can recover from the so-called "dégorgement shock". Furthermore, the yeasts store flavors in the sparkling wine. More and more producers are giving the disgorging date on the label, such as Bollinger (with legally protected designation Récemment dégorgé = RD), jacquesson. Lanson. Paillard and Selosse. Most of the time, this only occurs in part of the production. A sparkling wine should usually be enjoyed as soon as possible, so this consumer information is very helpful. At the Transvasierverfahren After bottle fermentation and bottle maturation, it is decanted into large containers, where before bottling filtration the yeast is removed.
A detailed description of the sparkling wine production with all processing steps can be found at champagne, Complete lists of the numerous vinification measures or cellar techniques, as well as the wine, sparkling wine and distillate types regulated by wine law are under the keyword winemaking contain. There is extensive wine law information under the keyword wine law,
Images: Champagne house Philipponnat