French term for the removal of the Hefesatzes (sludge, Enthefen), in the production of sparkling wine ( sparkling wine. champagne ) in the bottle fermentation arises. The process takes place after remuage (Rüttelung), in which the yeast residues are successively transported into the bottleneck. Before the invention of Remuage the residue was not removed, but the bottles Cul-en-l'air (with the bottle bottom up) stored and marketed. There are two different dégorgement methods:
The procedure used today only in smaller companies (Dégorgement à la ancienne = traditional, ancient, Dégorgement à la volée = with momentum) is relatively complex and requires great skill and experience. The Capsules is removed with a Dégorgier hook. It is important to ensure that when shooting out the yeast set not too much sparkling wine or carbonic acid get lost. The Dorgorgeur holds the bottle with the thumb of his left hand and checks the clarity of the wine. An experienced Degorgeur can process up to 400 bottles per hour, that is 8 to 10 seconds effort per bottle.
The most common procedure today (dégorgement à la glace = ice cream) was made by the Frenchman Armand Walfard-Binet (member of the Champagne House Binet in Reims) and patented in 1884. After the invention of the ice machine by Carl von Linde (1842-1934), it was patented in 1895 as a Walfard process in Germany. The bottles are placed with the neck in an ice-cold saline solution (minus 15 to 35 ° C). Although the alcohol in the bottleneck does not freeze the yeast, it gets a mushy consistency. After removing the crown cap, the yeast plug shoots out. Due to the cold, the carbonic acid is also fairly sedated and, in contrast to the warm disgorging, it remains almost completely in the bottle. The process usually takes place in larger companies by machine. The video (click to view) shows the manual process in the champagne house Philipponnat; in the bottleneck you can see the yeast mixture:
After the dégorgement, the addition of the shipping Dosage and the final closure by means of a specially made to Stillwein cork, Many producers still store the sparkling wine for at least three months before marketing, so that he can recover from the so-called "dégorgement shock". Furthermore, through the yeast storage flavorings in the sparkling wine. More and more producers are indicating the dégorgier date on the label, such as Bollinger (with legally protected designation Récemment dégorgé = RD), jacquesson. Lanson. Paillard and Selosse. In most cases, this is done only for part of the production. A sparkling wine should usually be enjoyed as soon as possible, so this consumer information is very helpful. At the Transvasierverfahren After bottle fermentation and bottle aging, the product is transferred to a bulk container, where before bottling filtration the yeast is removed.
A detailed description of sparkling wine production with all processing steps is available at champagne, Complete listings of the numerous vinification measures and cellar techniques, as well as the wine-regulated wine, sparkling wine and distillate types are under the keyword winemaking contain. Comprehensive information on wine law is available under the keyword wine law,
Pictures: Champagne house Philipponnat