Alcoholism (including alcohol addiction, ethylism, dipsomania, potomania, drinking, alcohol addiction, alcoholism or alcohol consumption disorder) is the dependence on the psychotropic substance ethanol, The mental and / or physical dependence on alcohol is mostly a social and human problem of the individual, but experience has shown that it also has a negative impact on his environment, such as family and work. In the course of history there have been and still are bans of alcohol in various forms in individual countries or in entire cultural areas such as Islam, alcohol abuse or in principle to prevent alcohol consumption for various reasons by strict prohibitions. A significant example of the dubious success of alcohol bans is the prohibition in the United States from 1920 to 1933.
The line is fluid - there is no measurable no / yes point. According to Prof. Dr. Wilhelm Feuerlein (Head of the Psychiatric Polyclinic, Max Planck Institute for Psychiatry in Munich and author of recognized standard works) has five clinical definition criteria. These are 1. abnormal drinking behavior, 2. somatic alcohol-related damage, 3. psychosocial alcohol-related damage, 4. development of tolerance and withdrawal syndrome (physical alcohol dependency) and finally 5. development of “withdrawal syndrome at the subjective level” in extreme cases total loss of control, as well as the centering of thinking and striving for alcohol (psychological alcohol addiction).
If only the first four criteria are met, one speaks of alcohol abuse (alcohol abuse), with the fifth criterion of alcohol addiction. According to estimates by the German headquarters against addiction, around eight million Germans (10%) are at risk of alcohol, including 2.5 million as alcoholic. 20% of work accidents and 20% of traffic fatalities are due to the influence of alcohol. This data can be converted pro rata to the population of Austria (just under 9 million).
A typological classification comes from Professor EM Jellinek. The US psychiatrist is considered the "pope" of alcoholism research; his major work "The disease concept of alcoholism" from 1940 led to the general recognition of alcoholism as a disease, the typology of alcoholism was published in 1960. Jellinkek assumes four or five types, which he describes as follows:
Alpha and beta...