Internationally common abbreviation for the English term deoxyribonucleinacid. The German DNS (deoxyribonucleic acid) is hardly used any more to avoid confusion with the Domain Name System (DNS) of the Internet. The structure of DNA was elucidated in 1953 by James Watson (* 1928) and Francis Crick (1916-2004), who in 1962 received the Nobel Prize for Medicine with Maurice Wilkins (1916-2004). DNA is a polymeric chain molecule in the cell nuclei of all plant, animal and human organisms, which serves as the carrier of information for the maintenance of all life processes and is inherited.
It basically consists of the five elements carbon, hydrogen, oxygen. phosphorus and nitrogen, The basic building blocks of the polymer, the deoxyribonucleotides, are themselves composed of three basic building blocks (deoxyribose, heterocyclic nucleobase, phosphoric acid) and differ essentially in the nature of the bases. Together, they form a long chain molecule composed of two opposing DNA strands in the form of a twisted rope ladder twisted. These are called in condensed (condensed) form as chromosomes (color bodies).