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Abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid; see below DNA,

DNA Internationally common abbreviation for the English term deoxyribonucleinacid. The German abbreviation DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is hardly used any more to avoid confusion with the Domain Name System (DNS) of the Internet. The structure of DNA was elucidated in 1953 by the biologists James Watson (* 1928) and Francis Crick (1916-2004), who in 1962 were awarded the Nobel Prize for Medicine with Maurice Wilkins (1916-2004).

The name derives from the basic DNA building blocks deoxyribose (one of five carbon atoms zuckerart, one pentose ), Phosphoric acid and four bases which give the nucleic acid. The DNA is a chain molecule in the cell nuclei of all plant, animal and human organisms, which serves as the carrier of genetic information for the maintenance of all biological life processes and is inherited. The genes are responsible for every single function in an organism, such as cell division or metabolism. However, they do not exercise these directly, but instead have, so to speak, "service organs", the proteins.

The whole genome is called a genome, whereas a gene is a small portion of the DNA of varying degrees. In early 2006, 25 scientists from the Sequence Ontology Consortium of Berkeley University needed two days to attempt an up-to-date definition of the gene: A gene is a localizable region of genomic DNA sequence that corresponds to a genetic unit and associates with regulatory, transcribed, and / or functional sequence regions is. It contains basic information for the development of an individual's traits and for the production of a biologically active RNA (ribonucleic acid). An essential function of RNA in the biological cell is the conversion of genetic information into proteins.

Structure of the DNA

The genes form a long chain molecule composed of two opposing DNA strands in the form of a twisted rope ladder, which is also called double helix. These are called chromosome (Color body). This can be thought of as an extremely long, thin rope ladder. The length of DNA in a human cell is just under two meters. Since a person consists of around 100 trillion cells (25% of them are blood cells that do not have a cell nucleus), the total length of DNA in a human being is 150 billion kilometers, ie around 1,000 times the distance from the earth to the sun with around 150 million Kilometre.

The two outer rods of the ladder consist of phosphoric acid and sugar molecules (deoxyribose). The connection of the pairs is the "rung", the sides of the ladder are called "strands". The sprouts each consist of two of the four bases. These are hymin A denin, G uanin, C and T ytosin. Of these four building blocks, two always fit together like keys and locks - A and T make one pair, C and G the other. For example, if one string is "TAACGCCCTTA", then the other string is "ATTGCGGGAAT".

A phosphoric acid ester and a sugar moiety form the backbone of a molecule (part of the blue band). Together with a base, these three units form one nucleotide (red ellipses). The two nucleotides (ellipses) together give a macromolecule of the nucleic acid type...

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