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Abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid; see below DNA,

DNA International abbreviation for the English name deoxyribonucleic acid. The German short name DNS (deoxyribonucleic acid) is hardly used anymore to avoid confusion with the Domain Name System (DNS) of the Internet. The structure of DNA was elucidated in 1953 by the biologists James Watson (* 1928) and Francis Crick (1916-2004), who received the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1962 with Maurice Wilkins (1916-2004).

The name derives from the basic DNA building blocks deoxyribose (one consisting of five carbon atoms zuckerart, a pentose ), Phosphoric acid and four bases that make up the nucleic acid. DNA is a chain molecule in the cell nuclei of all plant, animal and human organisms, which serves as a carrier of genetic information for the maintenance of all biological life processes and is inherited. The genes are responsible for every single function in an organism, such as cell division or metabolism. However, they do not exercise them directly, but instead have "service organs" for them, the proteins.

The entire genome is called a genome, whereas a gene is a small section of DNA with different dimensions. It took 25 scientists from the Sequence Ontology Consortium at the University of Berkeley two days to try to find a current definition of the gene in early 2006: A gene is a localizable region of genomic DNA sequence that corresponds to a hereditary unit and is associated with regulatory, transcribed and / or functional sequence regions is. It contains basic information for the development of properties of an individual and for the production of a biologically active RNA (ribonucleic acid). An essential function of RNA in the biological cell is the conversion of genetic information into proteins.

Structure of the DNA

The genes form a long chain molecule, which is made up of two opposite DNA single strands in the form of a screw-twisted rope ladder, which is also called a double helix. These are called chromosome (Colored body). This can be thought of as an extremely long, thin rope ladder. The length of the DNA in a human cell is just under two meters. Since a human being consists of around 100 trillion cells (25% of which are blood cells that do not have a nucleus), the total length of DNA in a human being is 150 billion kilometers, i.e. around 1,000 times the distance from the earth to the sun with around 150 million Kilometre.

The two outer rods of the ladder consist of phosphoric acid and sugar molecules (deoxyribose). The connection of the pairs is the "rung", the sides of the ladder are called "strands". The rungs consist of two of the four bases. These are A denin, G uanin, C ytosin and T hymin. Of these four building blocks, two always fit together like a key and lock - A and T form one pair, C and G the other. For example, if “TAACGCCCTTA” is on one strand, the other strand is “ATTGCGGGAAT”.

A phosphoric acid ester and a sugar unit form the backbone of a molecule (part of the blue band). Together with a base, these three units form a nucleotide (red ellipses). The two nucleotides (ellipses) together form a macromolecule of the...

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