French name for the addition of certain substances in the production of sparkling wine, where there are two different types of purpose. The terms "Liqueur" for the Dosage have nothing to do with one liqueur but derive from "liquor" for "liquid". Therefore, the case-by-case designations "Tiragelikör" and "Versandlikör" are actually wrong or at least misleading.
The pharmacist Jean-Baptiste François (1792-1838) from Châlons-en-Champagne developed a formula for determining the sugar content before the bottle fermentation, This allowed an exact dosage of the dosage. The addition takes place to trigger the second fermentation and thus the formation of the carbonic acid to effect. It takes place to the already fermented basic wine; in a blend immediately after assembling the base wines. The filling can only consist of sucrose. grape, partially fermented grape must, concentrated grape must. RTK (rectified concentrated grape must) or wine.
The addition is not considered as enrichment still as sweetening, There are about 4 g / l per 1 bar overpressure residual sugar needed, ie 24 g / l for 6 bar. In addition, special yeasts and occasionally a so-called Rüttelhilfe ( bentonite or tannin ) buried to dfas nacxhfolgende dégorgement to facilitate. In order to optimally combine the dosage with the wine, an as Poignettage designated manual or machine shaking of the bottles. For bottle-fermented sparkling wines, the wine is bottled immediately thereafter. The second fermentation can also be done in the tank (but not in the champagne ).
After this dégorgement (Removing the yeast set), the addition of the shipping dosage. With that you can colour, Taste and sweetness ( sugar content ) of a sparkling wine. In addition, the missing in the bottle by removing the yeast amount is replaced. If necessary, some champagne is aspirated to make room for the dosage. The shipping dosage may be from the same funds as the Fülldosage, as well as in addition wine distillate consist. With champagne, the existing alcohol content may be increased by a maximum of 0.5% vol. There are also sweet wines like Trockenbeerenauslese and Eiswein used as a sweetener. If no dosing is used to refill wine from other bottles. As a rule, rich, mild sparkling wines with yeast storage of several years require very little dosage (as a maximum value of 6 g / l residual sugar = extra brut). And the shorter the yeast storage and the higher the acidity the higher it should be.
With high-quality vintage champagne (frz. Millésime ) or usually with very long yeast storage (up to five years and even longer) this dosage is eliminated. The words pas dosé, dosage zéro or brut nature then appear on the label - meaning "without dosage". After the special sparkling wine cork is driven into the bottleneck, it is covered with a metal cap (capsule), which in turn by a Agraffe designated wire basket (Muselet) is fixed. In order to optimally combine the dosage with the wine, a manual or automatic shaking of the bottles takes place, as in the case of the filling dosing. In the video clip (click to view), the mechanical addition of the shipping dossier and the corking can be seen.
Detailed description of the sparkling wine production with all processing steps is available champagne, Complete listings of the numerous vinification measures and cellar techniques, as well as the wine-regulated wine, sparkling wine and distillate types are under the keyword winemaking contain. Comprehensive information on wine law is available under the keyword wine law,