French term for the addition of certain substances in the manufacture of sparkling wine, there are two different types of purpose. However, the terms "liqueur" for the dosage have nothing to do with you liqueur to do, but are derived from "liquor" for "liquid". For this reason, the terms "Tiragelikör" and "Versandlikör" used in certain cases are actually incorrect or at least misleading.
The pharmacist Jean-Baptiste François (1792-1838) from Châlons-en-Champagne developed a formula for determining the sugar content before bottle fermentation, This made an exact dosing of the dosage possible. The addition takes place in order to trigger the second fermentation and thus the formation of the carbonic acid to effect. It takes place on the already fermented basic wine; in the case of a blend immediately after the base wines have been assembled. The filling dose may only consist of sucrose. grape, partially fermented grape must, concentrated grape must. RTK (rectified concentrated grape must) or wine.
The addition does not count as enrichment still as sweetening, There will be around 4 g / l per 1 bar overpressure residual sugar required, i.e. 24 g / l for 6 bar. In addition, special yeasts and sometimes also a so-called Rüttelhilfe ( bentonite or tannin ) buried to the following dégorgement to facilitate. In order to optimally combine the dosage with the wine, an as Poignettage Manual or mechanical shaking of the bottles. In the case of bottle-fermented sparkling wines, the wine is bottled immediately afterwards. The second fermentation can also take place in the tank (but not in the champagne ).
After this dégorgement (Removal of the yeast set) the shipping dose is added. So that can colour, Taste and sweetness ( sugar content ) of a sparkling wine can be influenced or determined. In addition, the amount missing in the bottle due to the removal of the yeast is replaced. If necessary, some sparkling wine is sucked off to make room for the dosage. The shipping dosage may be from the same means as the filling dosage, as well as in addition wine distillate consist. In the case of champagne, the existing alcohol content may not be increased by more than 0.5% vol. Sweet wines are also like Trockenbeerenauslese and Eiswein used as a sweetener. If there is no dosage, wine from other bottles is used to fill up. As a rule, full-bodied, mild sparkling wines with several years of yeast storage require very little dosage (as a guideline max. 6 g / l residual sugar = extra brut). And the shorter the yeast storage and the higher the acidity, the higher it should be.
With high-quality vintage champagne (French Millésime ) or usually with very long yeast storage (up to five years and longer) this dosage is not necessary. Then the text pas dosé, dosage zéro or brut nature will appear on the label - this means "without dosage". After the special sparkling wine cork has been driven into the bottle neck, it is covered with a metal cap (capsule), which in turn is covered by a Agraffe designated wire basket (Muselet) is fixed. In order to optimally combine the dosage with the wine, the bottles are shaken manually or mechanically, as with the filling dosage. In the video clip (click to view) you can see the mechanical addition of the shipping dose and the corking.
Detailed description of the sparkling wine production with all processing steps can be found at champagne, Complete lists of the numerous vinification measures or cellar techniques, as well as the wine, sparkling wine and distillate types regulated by wine law are under the keyword winemaking contain. There is extensive wine law information under the keyword wine law,