Name for the yield of grapes or grapes in the vintage, mostly expressed in hectoliters grape or wine per hectare or kilogram of grapes per hectare. Overseas is too tons / acre common. This is also called wine law Target, expressed in terms of maximum yield in hectoliters per hectare, used for certain quality grades of wine and may vary widely depending on the country, region of vineyard, single vineyard or certain wines. In terms of grapevine density, there has been an extreme reduction in the last two millennia. The Romans still recommended 50,000 vines per hectare; this excluded from the outset a mechanical processing of the vineyard. In the middle of the 19th century, the average density was still 20,000 vines per hectare, with yields of at most 40 hectoliters per hectare. Today, the vines are set at a distance of 1.5 to 2 meters (depending on each country and wine-growing region, as well as depending on any regional specifications).
In general, it is common to plant an average of 5,000 vines per hectare (see below training system ). In the rough average yields a vine for low-yielding quality wine 1.5 to 2.5 kg of grapes, this results in 1.5 to 2 bottles of wine, each 0.75 l. For specialties, or predicates such as Beerenauslese. Trockenbeerenauslese or Eiswein, it is much less. At the grape varieties cultivated in Germany and Austria one can average about 55 to 75 liters at normal maturity of 100 kilograms of grapes must expect. The yield and quality of grapes in the vineyard are controlled by the winemaker through various measures throughout the year, including among others pruning and foliage care, such as thin out (Green reading) and grapes division or. grapes break,
The yield is calculated using the following formula: average number of grapes per stick x average weight of grapes in kg x number of heads per ha gives the yield in kg / ha. A more precise formula, taking specific values into account, is available from the website "Service Centers Rural Areas Rhineland-Palatinate": (Bleed [Eyes / St.] X Extraction Rate [%] x Average Grape Number / Shoot x Average Grape Weight [g / Grape] x Stockz./ha) / 1000 = yield [kg / ha]. An example is (12 eyes / stick x 90% x 2.2 grapes / shoot x 120 g / bunch x 5000 stick / ha) / 1000 = 14.256 kg / ha (see for specific values per variety / vine as weight / grape number under grape ).
The yield is one of the most important factors influencing the production of premium wines. As a rule, lower yields result in higher qualities. An excess of grapes usually has too little effect sugar. dyes and flavorings negative. Do high yields mean poor quality in principle? Specifically, the "right" relationship between quantity and quality is still not fully understood and also highly dependent on other factors such as soil type. training system, Stocking density, ratio between leaves and grapes, vine with their document and the nature of pressing, However, not only the number of vines per hectare, but also the yield per vine has a great influence.
In the Grand Cru in the Champagne, in the Bordeaux and in Burgundy The vines often produce only half a kilogram of grapes, but on one hectare up to 10,000 sticks in very narrow lines. Such a high density can be found occasionally even in the German wine-growing region Moselle, It is a fact that in Bordeaux reds out Cabernet Sauvignon with relatively high yields can yield top wines, but in Burgundy the qualities Pinot Noir with yields of more than 50 hl / ha of slopes are problematic. Also, relatively high yields can give good quality, so the question with "no" to answer. For the production of simple consumer wines or distillates but become aware mass support (High yield varieties).
A small list of maximally defined maximum yields per hectare in descending order: Soave 140 hl, Chianti 100 hl, Rheingau 84 hl, Barolo 80 hl, Brunello di Montalcino 80 hl, Austria for all growing areas 67,5 hl, Champagne 60 hl, Rioja 60 hl, Beaujolais 50 hl, Saint-Emilion 45 hl, Pomerol 40 hl and Priorato 10 hl. Individual producers set themselves particularly low limits due to the highest quality requirements; significant examples are, for example, the two French wineries Domaine de la Romanée-Conti with 25 hl and Château d'Yquem with 9 hl, as well as the Spanish winery Dominio de Pingus with 12 hl per ha.
The wine market organization, which was adopted by the EU in 1999, obliges the member states to set an allowable yield per hectare in grape, must or wine quantities for each quality wine, taking into account the yields of the previous 10 years vintages to take into account. The countries can determine their yields differently according to the criteria of the growing area or part of the growing area, grape varieties or grape variety groups and quality groups on their own responsibility. The excess quantities may not be placed on the market.
Not just within the EU, but in most wine-producing countries Yield limits are an important criterion for the classification / classification of wines within the quality systems, This can also be different depending on the winegrowing region, the winegrowing area or, as in the Romance countries, each appellation. But how can compliance be checked? Apart from the fact that quality-conscious producers themselves have a high interest in achieving a yield reduction through targeted measures, a check is carried out by wine-related institutions. Of course, the authorities can not control the grape harvest of all producers on the spot. As an example, the custom in Austria which is similar in many countries. The Austrian Wine Law 2009 defines the quantity limit:
Section 23 (1) Wine growers (vineyard land managers) shall not place more than the maximum hectare of land, quality or predicate wine or grapes intended for their production per harvest of a given vintage. (2) The maximum amount per hectare is 9,000 kg of grapes or 6,750 liters of wine per hectare in the vineyard area registered and planted vineyard area for the production of land, quality or predicate wine. (3) If the maximum hectare quantity is exceeded, the whole quantity of the harvest may be marketed only as wine without the description of the variety or the grape variety. The verification:
Every year, as of the deadline of 30th November, each company must have one harvest declaration respectively. It shows how high the yield is at the quality levels covered by the hectare yield scheme. In connection with the specified total vineyard area of the farm is the authority BKI calculates whether the maximum hectare yield has been complied with. If exceeded, the sanctions listed above are threatened. That sounds very rigorous, but in reality that's not nearly so extreme. Because in the harvest report, a splitting can be made on wines with and wines without hectare maximum yield (formerly table wine). Thus, a farm that harvests more than 9,000 kg / ha in total should "sacrifice" only a "subset" with an associated area for the "wine from Austria" (for which there is no yield limit).
In addition, the maximum hectare yield calculation is managed vineyards (Total profitable and non-productive area). Thus, the young plants are to be included, which still have little or no yield. Furthermore, the maximum hectare yield across all quality levels is the same (maximum 9,000 kg / ha). This means that a predicate wine producer, for example, on one hectare 3,000 kg one Trockenbeerenauslese harvests, so it can harvest 15,000 kg on its second acre. That is a total of 18,000 kg on two hectares without exceeding the permissible maximum yield per hectare. As already mentioned, however, quality-conscious producers often go far below the yield restrictions.
All aids, works and measures in the vineyard during the growth cycle one finds below Weingarten Care, Complete listings of the numerous cellar techniques, as well as a list of the wine-regulated wine, sparkling wine and distillate types are under the keyword winemaking contain. Comprehensive information on wine law is available under the keyword wine law,