Term for the yield of grapes or grapes in the vintage, usually expressed in hectoliters grape or wine per hectare or in kilograms of grapes per hectare. Is overseas too tons / acre common. This is also called wine law Guideline, expressed as maximum yield in hectoliters per hectare, used for certain wine quality levels and can vary considerably depending on the country, wine-growing region, individual locations or even certain wines. There has been an extreme reduction in vine density over the past two millennia. The Romans still recommended 50,000 vines per hectare; this precluded mechanical processing of the vineyard from the outset. In the middle of the 19th century, the density averaged 20,000 vines per hectare, with yields of a maximum of 40 hectoliters per hectare. Today, the vines (different for each country and wine region, as well as depending on any regional requirements) are planted at a distance of 1.5 to 2 meters.
In general, it is common to plant an average of 5,000 vines per hectare (see below training system ). On average, a vine yields for those with reduced yield quality wine 1.5 to 2.5 kg of grapes, that makes 1.5 to 2 bottles of wine with 0.75 l each. For specialties or predicates such as Beerenauslese. Trockenbeerenauslese or Eiswein, it is much less. With the grape varieties grown in Germany and Austria, with a normal ripeness of 100 kilograms of grapes, an average of about 55 to 75 liters must expect. The yield and the quality of the grapes in the vineyard are controlled by the winemaker through various measures throughout the year, including among others pruning and foliage care, such as thin out (Green harvest) and grapes division respectively. grapes break,
The yield is calculated using the following formula: average number of grapes per stick x average grape weight in kg x number of sticks per ha gives the yield in kg / ha. A more precise formula, taking into account specific values, comes from the website "Service Centers for Rural Rhineland-Palatinate": (first cut [eyes / st.] X shoot rate [%] x average number of grapes / shoots x average grape weight [g / grape] x Stockz./ha) / 1000 = yield [kg / ha]. An example is (12 eyes / stick x 90% x 2.2 grapes / shoot x 120 g / grape x 5000 stick / ha) / 1000 = 14.256 kg / ha (see specific values for each grape variety / vine as weight / number of grapes under grape ).
The yield is one of the most important factors influencing the production of top wines. As a rule, lower yields also result in higher qualities. An excess yield of grapes usually has too little effect sugar. dyes and flavorings negative. So do high yields mean poor quality in principle? Strictly speaking, the “right” relationship between quantity and quality is still not completely clear and also strongly dependent on other factors such as soil type. training system Planting density, ratio between the amount of leaves and grapes, vine with their document and the type of pressing, Not only the number of vines per hectare has a major impact, but also the yield per vine.
In the Grand Cru in the Champagne, in the Bordeaux and in Burgundy The vines often only produce half a kilogram of grapes, but there are up to 10,000 vines in very narrow rows on one hectare. Such a high density is also occasionally found in the German growing region Moselle, It is a fact that red wines are made in Bordeaux Cabernet Sauvignon can produce top wines with relatively high yields, but the qualities in Burgundy Pinot Noir are problematic with yields of more than 50 hl / ha from slopes. Relatively high yields can also give good quality, so the question must be answered with "No". For the production of simple consumer wines or distillates but become aware mass support (Varieties with high yield).
A small list of maximum yields per hectare defined by wine law in descending order: Soave 140 hl, Chianti 100 hl, Rheingau 84 hl, Barolo 80 hl, Brunello di Montalcino 80 hl, Austria for all growing areas 67.5 hl, Champagne 60 hl, Rioja 60 hl, Beaujolais 50 hl, Saint-Emilion 45 hl, Pomerol 40 hl and Priorato 10 h. Individual producers set particularly low limits due to the highest quality requirements, significant examples are the two French wineries Domaine de la Romanée-Conti with 25 hl and Château d'Yquem with 9 hl, as well as the Spanish winery Dominio de Pingus with 12 hl per ha.
The wine market organization, which was decided by the EU in 1999, obliges the member countries to determine a permissible hectare yield in grape, must or wine quantities for each quality wine, taking into account the yields of the previous ten years, whereby only those of satisfactory quality vintages are to be considered. The federal states can determine the yields according to the criteria of the growing area or part of the growing area, vine varieties or groups of vine varieties and quality groups on their own responsibility. The excess quantities may not be placed on the market.
Not just within the EU, but in most wine-producing countries Yield limits are an important criterion for the allocation / classification of wines within the quality systems, This can also vary depending on the wine-growing region, wine-growing area or, as in the Roman countries, per appellation. But how can compliance be checked? In addition to the fact that quality-conscious producers themselves are very interested in achieving a reduction in yield through targeted measures, controls are carried out by wine authorities. Of course, the authorities cannot inspect the grapes of all producers on site. The practice in Austria which is similar in many countries. The Austrian wine law 2009 defines the quantity restriction:
Section 23 (1) Winegrowers (managers of vineyard areas) may not place more than the maximum hectare quantity of agricultural, quality or quality wine or grapes intended for their production on the market per harvest of a vintage. (2) The maximum amount per hectare is 9,000 kg of grapes or 6,750 liters of wine per hectare in the vineyard area entered and planted in the vineyard area for the production of country, quality or quality wine. (3) If the maximum amount per hectare is exceeded, the entire amount of the harvest may only be placed on the market as wine without a grape variety or vintage. The verification:
Every year on the reporting date November 30th, each company must have one harvest declaration respectively. This shows how high the harvest is at the quality levels covered by the hectare yield regulation. In connection with the specified total wine-growing area of the company, the authority BKI calculates whether the maximum hectare yield has been met. If the limit is exceeded, the above-mentioned sanctions are imminent. That sounds very rigorous, but in reality it's not nearly as extreme. Because in the harvest notification, a split between wines with and wines without hectare maximum yield (formerly table wine) can be made. Thus, a company that harvests a total of more than 9,000 kg / ha would only have to "sacrifice" a "partial quantity" with an associated area for the "wine from Austria" (for which there is no yield restriction).
In addition, the hectare maximum yield calculation is about the cultivated vineyards (Total profitable and non-profitable area). Thus, the young plants that have little or no yield are also to be included. Furthermore, the maximum hectare yield across all quality levels is the same (max. 9,000 kg / ha). That means that a predicate wine producer who, for example, on a hectare of 3,000 kg Trockenbeerenauslese harvests, therefore can harvest 15,000 kg on his second hectare. This is a total of 18,000 kg on two hectares without the maximum hectare yield being exceeded. As already mentioned, however, quality-conscious producers often go far below the yield restrictions.
All tools, work and measures in the vineyard during the growth cycle can be found at Weingarten Care, Complete lists of the numerous cellar techniques, as well as a list of wine, sparkling wine and distillate types regulated by wine law are under the keyword winemaking contain. There is extensive wine law information under the keyword wine law,