The Dutch doctor and merchant Jan van Riebeeck (1619-1677) founded Cape Town in 1652 and planted the first vines brought from Europe in 1655 at the foot of Table Mountain near today's legislative capital. The first verifiable vintage was a 1659 with 15 liters of Muscat wine. From the end of the 17th century there were 200 Huguenots expelled from their French homeland - the name of today's cultivation area Franschhoek (French corner) reminds of them - as well as German and Dutch winegrowers who further developed South African winegrowing. Her descendants still play an important role today. The Dutch governor appointed from 1679 Simon van der Stel (1639-1712) founded the city Stellenbosch and laid the famous vineyard in 1685 Constantia from which at the time one of the legendary European rulers Sweet wines the world called "Vin de Constance" was created. In the 17th century, large amounts of wine were produced in Port wine- and Sherry-style as well as brandy exported to England. In the 18th and 19th centuries, the Dutch governors successfully promoted viticulture. In 1885 the phylloxera South Africa too and wreaked havoc.
Racial segregation was initiated after the founding of the South African Union in 1910 (the black population was excluded from the election) and tightened after the Second World War (the term apartheid from afrikaans "apart" = individual, special) emerged. Due to the boycott of many countries, South Africa was increasingly cut off from exports. In 1918, due to a wine crisis (overproduction, poor quality, bankruptcy of many companies) KWV (Kooperatieve Wijnbouwers Vereniging van Zuid Afrika) was founded. This state control body then dominated the entire South African viticulture until the early 1990s. Apartheid policy was abandoned in 1991 and the right to own land was opened to all races. As a result, demand from abroad skyrocketed and wine has become one of the most important export goods. In 2002 the non-profit organization became WIETA founded, which among other things takes care of improved working conditions in the wine industry.
The climate is ideal for viticulture. The proximity to the Atlantic Ocean in the west and the Indian Ocean in the east characterizes the “wine between two oceans”. There is a long, mostly sunny summer and (from May to September) a mild but humid winter. The cold and gusty wind from the south-east is called "Cape Doctor" because it cleans the air - but the winegrowers fear it because it can damage the vines. One differentiates from climate. soil type and wine type from two main regions: the more moderate, more rainy under the influence of the Art Atlantic Coastal region with mostly dry white and red wines and the less rainy, hotter areas separated by mountain ranges Little Karoo. Olifants River. Robertson and Worcester with alcohol-rich dessert wines. Especially the coastal areas like Constantia. Durbanville. Overberg. Philadelphia. Stellenbosch are influenced by the nearby sea. Cooling breezes and cooling at night ensure long ripening periods and are conducive to quality wines. Most of the warmer areas have to be artificial irrigation mostly done by rivers.
There are almost 4,000 grape producers, around 60 cooperatives, around 500 private wineries and wineries and over 20 wholesalers. The largest winery is Nederburg (Paarl) with 700 hectares of vineyards, where the first South African botrytis wine called Edelkeur by Günter Brözel (next to Graue and Tim Hamilton Russel one of the South African viticulture pioneers) was produced. An important one takes place here every year auction instead of. The KWV Internationally (even after privatization) plays a crucial role as a producer and trading company. Another large company is the Stellenbosch Farmer's Winery (SFW). A traditional specialty, as before, is still that of the type of sherry and port wine manufactured, sweet Dessert wines, Chenin Blanc and the nutmeg varieties become simple, carbonated in large quantities bubblies (Sparkling wines), but also sparkling wines after the Method cap classique generated. From the legendary wine pioneer Professor Abraham Isak Perold (1880-1941) created Pinotage variety delivers Cape specialties with deep, full-bodied red wines. From the 1950s onwards, temperature...