French name for the custom in the area Champagne, already at the beginning of the vintage under official supervision for the grapes to set a certain price per kilogram according to a defined quality standard in three classes. The association responsible for champagne CIVC (Comité Interprofessionnel du Vin de Champagne) sets the prices of the varieties in front. All 312 municipalities are classified and ranked between 80 and 100%. The grapes of the Grand Cru locations with 100% are used annually for price formation, this corresponds to the full price. The grapes of all other locations receive a price discount of up to 20% depending on their classification or classification.
The range is adjusted more or less regularly, there were already lower limits with 75 and 77%. However, the winegrowers are free to negotiate the prices of their vines. The result is called the Échelle des crus (meaning “scale or order of growth of the plants”). The crus often have different characteristics in terms of soil quality, location and climate which are used as criteria for the assessment. The grape varieties also play a role, although there are grands crus for Pinot Noir and Chardonnay, but not for relatively small areas of Pinot Meunier,
The "Hors classe catégorie" (hors = exceptional) is rated 100%, that's them Grands Crus, These are 17 municipalities with around 4,000 hectares, which makes up 11% of the total area of the Champagne. The Grand Cru communities are Ambonnay, Avize. Aÿ, Beaumont-sur-Vesle, Bouzy Chouilly Cramant, Louvois, Mailly, Mesnil-sur-Oger. Oger, Oiry, Puisieux, Sillery, Tours-sur-Marne, Verzenay and Verzy. In the second class Premiers Crus or "1er Crus" are classified 41 municipalities with around 5,000 hectares, which corresponds to 14%. These are rated with 90 to 99%. The third class comprises 254 municipalities with around 25,000 hectares; these receive 80 to 89%. Producers can only call their champagne Grand Cru or Premier Cru if all vines come from such crus without exception. The champagne houses use that for the finest champagne Cuvée de Prestiges only grapes from Grand Crus, that's the 100% champagne.
A detailed description of the sparkling wine production with all processing steps can be found at champagne, Complete lists of the numerous vinification methods or cellar techniques, as well as the wine, sparkling wine and distillate types regulated by wine law are under the keyword winemaking contain. There is extensive wine law information under the keyword wine law,