Science (Greek oikos = house, doctrine of the household, eco = environment) of the complex and reciprocal relationship of living beings to their environment as a branch of biology (science of the living nature and the laws in the process of animal, plant and human life). More broadly, ecology means the doctrine of the total budget of nature. The term has become synonymous to synonym developed for "environment" or "environmental protection". Decisive condition for a balanced and stable ecosystem is biodiversity (Biodiversity). This means the existence of a high number of plant and animal organisms. In all western industrialized countries there are huge areas of agriculture and so on viniculture Monocultures arose not infrequently huge scale. In extreme cases, instead of a natural complex of many different plants as the only plant is only the grapevine as it is in extreme form in California and Australia with kilometer-long vineyards is the case.
Through decades of massive use of conventional Pesticides with polluting pesticides is the grapevine against these pathogens, against animal pests and against weed impoverished and become unstable. Another cause is the partly already carried out over many decades massive fertilization with mineral substances. This creates a negative (almost deadly) cycle, because the mass multiplication of harmful organisms is virtually inevitable. From the discussion about the limits of industrial growth and the exploitation of the natural life-world of man, the ecology movement has emerged, which wants to make the handling of the limited resources of the earth more environmentally friendly. That's the concept sustainability (regenerable systems), as well as regarding the conservation of biodiversity the term biodiversity emerged. These environmental protection / conservation important principles also play an important role in viticulture Weingarten Care but also with respect to cellar technology increasingly an important role.
The terms ecology and biology are often confused or equated and interpreted differently. A good description of the difference in the form of a joke is: Biologically means that no chemical mace was used in the cultivation, and Ecologically means that in addition the environment was spared or even promoted. See the topic in detail under Organic (organic) viticulture,