The ancient civilizations of the Assyrian. Egyptian. Babylonian. Chinese. Persian. Phoenicians and other peoples with the conscious breeding of plants and thus also varieties on the basis of Wild vines, It has long been known that new varieties could be obtained from seed sowing. Probably the Persians and later the Arabs already had large berries in the early Middle Ages table grapes bred that spread throughout the Mediterranean to Spain (Negrul's Proles orientalis ). Modern breeding as deliberate, manually induced crossing Two parent varieties with the targeted use of paternal pollen only started in Christian Europe with the beginning of the botanical system, for which Carl von Linné (1707-1778) and Charles Darwin (1809-1882) laid the scientific foundations.
From the first third of the 19th century, new grape varieties through targeted breeding activities such as seed sowing or crossings emerged, particularly in the greenhouses of England. These were, for example, the table grape varieties Foster's White Seedling and Lady Downe's Seedling, In the middle of the 19th century, many new varieties such as that emerged in France, especially in the nursery of Anger (Loire) Madeleine Royale and Madeleine Angevine, Crossbreeding was then carried out professionally from the second third of the 19th century. A real boom for new varieties of mushroom-proof hybrid varieties and phylloxera resistant documents took place in connection with the Reblaus- and Mildew disaster from the 1870s especially in France, with the breeders Georges Couderc (1850-1928) and Albert Seibel (1844-1936), as well as the vine farm Seyve Villard are to be emphasized. After the great success of the Müller-Thurgau Large quantities of new grape varieties were also created in Germany after the First World War. This led to varieties like Bacchus. Domina. Dornfelder. dark fields. Huxelrebe. Kerner. Scheurebe. Siegerrebe and many more.
The general breeding goal in modern viticulture is to produce grape varieties with certain positive, desired properties and characteristics. New grape varieties with better or sometimes completely new properties can only be produced in a generative (gender-specific) way by cross breeding : Two grape varieties with desired parental characteristics are crossed with each other and from the attracted seedlings selected plants that best match the desired ideal variety. In maintenance breeding , existing varieties with degenerative or viral appearances are improved by selecting the vigorous, most fertile and healthiest vines. These healthy and virus-free individual vines are then mass-propagated in a vegetative (asexual) way, while the degenerated, sterile vines in the vineyard are eliminated and by the reproduced healthy ones Clones to be replaced in top quality ( cloning ).
Once a plant with the desired properties has been discovered and selected, the reproduction of this breeding success represented by only one plant can be achieved vegetative propagation about cuttings to be done in nurseries generate enough clone copies for planting the vineyards. Due to the extremely pronounced heterozygosity (Splitting inheritance) in the species genome of the grapevine re-split plants that have been seeded again and thus no longer have the selected properties of the mother plant. That is why vegetative propagation is the only way to obtain a selected type of variety and multiply it unchanged (see detailed information under blossom ). For issuing the plant variety for newly cultivated grape varieties or selected clones in Europe or the individual countries are the plant variety protection agency established by the EU CPVO (Community Plant Variety Office) or the national authorities. There are essentially four different breeding strategies, some of which can also be used in combination. These are cross-breeding, selection or selection, mutation and maintenance breeding.
The new breed new grape varieties by crossing and generative (sexual) propagation of two parent varieties. The heterozygosity of the vine mentioned above means that the offspring also have different properties than the parents. This basically positive phenomenon is called heterosis, As a rule, the parents are different varieties, which...