World famous dessert wine from Portugal who as "Vinho do Porto" or simply "Porto" not according to his area of origin Douro is named, but after the port city postage from where it is shipped. The English were instrumental in the creation of the wars in connection with them France involved. In the 17th century, French wine was imported for a while England prohibited and then charged with high tariffs. This led to a supply shortage. In 1678, a Liverpool wine merchant sent his two sons to Viano do Castello near the city of Porto to buy wine. In Lamego they came to a monastery where the abbot offered them a wine that they loved. The priest told them the secret of why this wine was so pleasantly sweet and soft, namely by pouring it on brandy, that is Spriten in the fermentation, The two then bought up the entire stock, sent the cargo to England and the triumphal march of the port wine, initially known as "Red Portugal", began.
The decisive factor for the port wine boom was the one completed in 1703 Methuen Treaty (Contract), which provided for tariff reductions for the import of Portuguese wines into England. The port wine at that time was almost exclusively intended for export to England, which is why it is still called "Englishmen Wine" today. At that time it was still common to add red elderberry juice as a colorant. From the beginning of the 18th century, English, German and Dutch families settled in Porto to market the port wine. These included names that still play a crucial role today, such as Cockburn. Croft. Ferreira. Niepoort. Sandeman. Taylor's as well as that of later Symington acquired companies Dow, Graham and Warre. The British trading houses built this in Porto in 1790 Factory house, which initially served as a factories and then from 1811 until today as a men's club and meeting point.
The English practically acquired a monopoly on marketing. Under the then prime minister Marques de Pombal (1699-1782), who is in the area Carcavelos The area was owned by a winery to protect the authenticity of port wine in 1756 Douro defined within its limits. Only the best vineyards were included. On the approximately 250,000 hectares of land, only around an eighth is suitable for port vines. The area counts alongside Chianti to the oldest legally defined wine-growing regions in the world. Pombal took further measures to protect port wine. As an important measure to break the English monopoly, he founded the "Real Companhia Velha". He also prohibited adding elderberry juice and fertilizing with manure. This did reduce the earnings, but increased the quality.
For over two centuries, the defined limit was only for port wine. The Portuguese name "Vinho do Porto" is from the city postage derived on the lower course of the Douro. It was only in 1979 that the DOC classification was extended to “normal” wines, ie red and white wines that were unsprit compared to port wine. However, the best soil is reserved for the port wine, which is above all the most suitable slate soils on mostly terraced slopes. The region lies in the north-west of Portugal and includes the valleys of the Douro River and its tributaries to the Spanish border. This waters have a positive effect on viticulture or create the conditions by forming valley slopes.
There are three official subzones for the port wine area. The zone "Baixa Corgo" (lower Corgo) in the west comprises the area north of the Douro between Barqueiros and the west bank of the Corgo and south of the Douro to Armamar. This coolest and wettest zone produces lighter wines. The largest zone "Cima Corgo" (upper Corgo) is north and south of the Douro between Baixa Corgo in the west to Cachão da Valeira in the east. The area around the city of Pinhão is considered the best, most of the large port wine houses have their quintas (wineries) here. The "Douro Superior" zone is in the east and extends to the Spanish border in the north. This is the smallest and driest area and partly not yet fully used pioneer land.
There are around 30,000 winegrowers on around 33,000 hectares of vineyards, whose 80,000 vineyards are classified in a very complex system. The criteria location, Tilt (the steeper the better) exposition, Sea level, microclimate, training system. vine, Planting density, general condition of the vineyard, age of the vines. soil type (Slate, granite, stone part) and...