adding sugar in different form to fresh grapes. grape, partially fermented grape must, young wine (not finished fermented) and Wine, The terms alcohol increase, improve, chaptalisation or grape picking up. An amount of 17 to 19 grams of sugar per liter of wine increases the alcohol content by about 1% vol. The process has nothing to do with the sweetening of a wine (in which an increase of the residual sugar takes place) or the Spriten To do (alcohol addition to the already finished wine). The goal is to make the natural by fermentation of the additional sugar alcohol content in the wine increase.
By the valid from August 2009 EU wine market (GMO) resulted in amended guidelines. The maximum limits are depending on growing zone differently. The maximum level of enrichment in zone A (eg Germany except the Baden region) is 3.0% vol (up to 2008 it was 3.5), in zone B (eg Germany Baden, Austria) 2, 0% vol (2.5 by 2008), and 1.5% vol in zone C (eg Italy, France, Greece, Portugal, Spain) (1.0 by 2008). In years with exceptionally adverse weather conditions, an increase of these limits by 0.5% vol can be requested.
Various means or procedures are permitted, with the application of one method / agent excluding the others. The first form is the addition of sugar-containing agents. Allowed are Concentrated grape must (not, however grape ) RTK (rectified concentrated grape must) and sucrose (Beet). The second form of enrichment is one concentration (Dehydration) of grape must ( osmosis ) and wine (freezing concentration). However, concentration must not result in a reduction in the initial volume of more than 20%; or the natural alcohol content (total alcohol content in the wine before any enrichment) may be increased by a maximum of 2% vol.
The use of sucrose (dry sugar) is permitted in wine-growing zones A and B in general, but in wine-growing zone C only in certain countries (banned in certain départements in France, Greece, Italy, Portugal, Spain and Cyprus). It should be noted that a general ban on sucrose was envisaged because that would be contrary to the objective of a production restriction. However, this was partly allowed by a successful objection by Germany and Austria.
The total alcoholic strength of fortified wines of no geographical origin (formerly table wine ) per vineyard zone maximum: 11.5% vol in A, 12% vol in B, 12.5% vol in CI, 13% vol in C II and 13.5% vol in C III. By way of derogation, red wines in A may be enriched to a maximum of 12% vol and B to 12.5% vol alcohol content. For wines of geographical origin, that is country wine ( Wine PGI ) and quality wine ( Wine PDO ), unlike in the past, no value is given. However, the EU member states are obliged to set maximum limits. An enrichment has (unlike earlier) no effect on the limits at a sweetening, For the quality level Prädikatswein is an enrichment in Germany and Austria (here also the quality level cabinet ) prohibited under national laws in principle. See specific values below Germany. Austria among other countries.
Complete listings of the numerous vinification measures and cellar techniques, as well as the various wine-regulated wine, sparkling wine and distillate types are under the keyword winemaking contain. Comprehensive information on wine law is available under the keyword wine law,