Large group of over a thousand proteins that play a central role in the metabolism of all living organisms. They control or accelerate the majority of biochemical reactions such as growth, metabolism, stimulus uptake and transmission, immune system and digestion to copying the DNA information, In plants, among other things so that photosynthesis controlled. The term formed as an artificial word means sourdough or yeast and was introduced by the German physiologist Wilhelm F. Kühne (1837-1900), previously the term "ferment" was used. In addition to the corresponding microorganisms enzymes are also at one fermentation decisively involved by providing a starting material such as wine in vinegar convert.
In the winemaking play enzymes starting from the fermentation to bottle aging also a significant role. Some are also artificially produced and harmful in winemaking and control microorganisms used. For example, enzymes involved in this connection are chitinases. glucanases. invertase. lysozyme. oxidases (Laccase, tyrosinase), pectinases. Suberase. urease and zymase, As support of the natural enzymes are also oenological enzymes used. See a complete list of all wine ingredients under the keyword total extract,