Large group of over a thousand proteins that play a central role in the metabolism of all living organisms. They control or accelerate the majority of biochemical reactions such as growth, metabolism, stimulus absorption and transmission, the immune system and digestion up to copying the DNA information, Among other things, this is the case for plants photosynthesis controlled. The term formed as an artificial word means sourdough or yeast and was introduced by the German physiologist Wilhelm F. Kühne (1837-1900), previously the term "ferment" was used. In addition to the corresponding microorganisms are enzymes in one fermentation crucially involved by using a source material like wine in vinegar convert.
In the winemaking play enzymes starting from the fermentation to bottle aging also an important role. Some are also made artificially and are more harmful in winemaking and control microorganisms used. Enzymes involved in this context are for example chitinases. glucanases. invertase. lysozyme. oxidases (Laccase, tyrosinase), pectinases. Suberase. urease and zymase, As a support to natural enzymes, too oenological enzymes used. See a complete list of all wine ingredients under the keyword total extract,