This vine disease was already in the antiquity known among others to the Romans. The name derives from the Greek "Yska", which means "rotten wood". It comes mainly in warmer regions such as France. Italy and California in front. According to current knowledge, these are mushrooms Phaeoacremonium, Fomitiporia punctata, Phellinus igniarius and Stereum hirsutum involved. The former species also seems to be the cause of that Petri's disease to be. This seems to be the preliminary stage of Esca, which is why it is also known as Young Esca . The complicated disease complex causes within a few years apoplexy, that is the sudden death of vines or at least parts of them.
The exact cause has not yet been clarified. Esca disease mainly occurs in older people vines on. The fungus probably penetrates pruning injuries caused, the tissue is decomposed by toxins and the juice circulation of the plant is impaired. As a result, dead, characteristic white wood zones form in the center (hence also white rot ). In midsummer older leaves begin between the leaf veins single, irregularly distributed, yellowish spots that rapidly enlarge and necrotize from the center. The left picture shows a vine damaged by Esca, the right picture shows the leaf symptom.
The flaming red-brown necrosis (Discoloration) merge into one another and rapidly spread across the leaf veins. The symptoms are initially reminiscent of that of the Red burner, The berries turn purple, shrink and taste bitter. Unfortunately, the symptoms of the disease only show up at an advanced stage. A direct control after an infestation is not yet possible. The best and safest measure, the vines in front of Esca (and also the similar wood disease eutypa dieback ) To protect is to prevent wood-destroying mushrooms from entering the wooden body as best as possible. Large areas should be closed with a wound closure.
The diseased wood must be rigorously cut back to healthy wood. Perennial wood of diseased vines has to be removed from the vineyard and burned. Most recently, Esca was active in Europe on a larger scale in the 1950s, but has apparently been appearing more and more recently. At the beginning of 2002, specialists from the Weinbauinstitut reported Freiburg that around 2.5 percent of the area in Baden-Württemberg, but even up to 40 percent in individual vineyards, is affected. See also under Vine enemies,