This vine disease was already in the antiquity known among others to the Romans. The name derives from the Greek "Yska", which means "rotten wood". It comes especially in warmer regions such as France. Italy and California in front. According to current knowledge, the mushrooms Phaeoacremonium, Fomitiporia punctata, Phellinus igniarius and Stereum hirsutum. The former species also seems to be the cause of the Petri's disease to be. This seems to be the precursor of Esca, which is why it is also known as Young Esca . The complex disease complex causes within a few years apoplexy that is, the sudden death of vines or at least parts of them.
The exact cause is not yet clear. Esca's disease mainly occurs in older people vines on. Presumably, the fungus gets through pruning Injuries caused by the tissue are decomposed by toxins and impaired the juice circulation of the plant. As a result, dead, in the center characteristic white wood zones form (therefore also white rot ). In midsummer begin on older leaves between the leaf veins To disclose single, irregularly distributed, yellowish spots that enlarge rapidly and necrotize from the center. The left picture shows a vine damaged by Esca, the right picture shows the leaf symptom.
The flaming reddish brown necrosis (Discoloration) merge into each other and spread rapidly between the leaf veins. The symptoms are initially reminiscent of those of Red burner, The berries turn violet, shrink and taste bitter. The symptoms of the disease unfortunately show up only at an advanced stage. A direct fight after an infestation is currently not possible. The best and safest measure, the vines before Esca (and also the similar running wood disease eutypa dieback ) is to prevent wood-destroying fungi as best as possible access to the wood body. Large-area interfaces should be sealed with a wound sealant.
The diseased wood must be rigorously cut back to healthy wood. Perennial wood of diseased sticks is removed from the vineyard and burned. Most recently, Esca was more active in Europe in the 1950s, but appears to have been increasing again in recent years. At the beginning of 2002, specialists from the wine institute reported Freiburg that in Baden-Wuerttemberg about 2.5 percent of the areas were affected, in individual vineyards but even up to 40 percent. See also below Vine enemies,