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spalliera, palmetta (I)
espalier (ES)
espalier (F)
espalier (GB)
leiboom (N)

General term for the world's most common and oldest education system for wine grapes, It has been in the antiquity used by the Romans. In horticulture it is used for many types of fruit. For ornamental vines or table grapes Education for decorative purposes is often done on a wall either free-climbing or using trellis aids such as wooden frame or grid. In wine grapes cultivated in the vineyard are the shoots secured or guided by support systems in countless variations in the desired shape.

In this system, a vertical, that is vertical foliage wall (trellis) formed by means of several wires (but you could also the horizontal overhead system such as pergola as a trellis). The foliage wall has a thickness of about 20 to 30 cm. As a rule of thumb, per running meter a maximum of 15 shoots are formed in order to avoid compaction. There is a lower espalier education or after the inventor Jules Guyot also Guyot (see in detail there) as well as a normal espalier education .

Wire frame support structure
By Bauer Karl - Own work , CC BY-SA 3.0 , Link

Normal trellis education is known under a variety of names, including Normal Education, Standard Normal Education, Standard Palatine, Palmetta in Italy, and VSP or VSP Trellis (Vertical Shoot Positioning) in Australia and New Zealand and others. The shoots are stapled vertically in tension wires (stuck, bound or formed). This formation creates a hedge-like appearance. This can be up to 2.5 meters, depending on the particular trellis variant and other criteria.

pendulum arc
By Bauer Karl - Own work , CC BY-SA 3.0 , Link

As a rule, stems of 70-90 cm are raised and on this one or two flat arches (Strecker), semi-arches or pendulum bows are cut in the row direction. These shoots are attached to Spanndrähtent. With the half and pendulum arch, the shoot is attached via an additional bending wire (see under arc ). The number of horizontally guided wires is of the variant of the educational form, pruning, of the vine (Vigilance) and the desired earnings dependent. Further trellising systems have been developed due to special soil formations or climatic Conditions developed in the vineyard. The variants:

See complete listings below training system (Systems) and Weingarten Care (Activities).

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