The vinegar fly (Drosophila melanogaster) is the most common species (species) of the family of fruit flies (also fruit flies) counting insects. These are the most important and most commonly used experimental animal in heredity research. In agriculture, the insect occurs as a large pest. It mainly affects in fermentation Overflowed fruit and fruit of all kinds and lay there his eggs. The rapid multiplication can cause great damage. One female lays 15 to 25 per day and 500 to almost 1,000 during its lifetime, developing into larvae within 24 hours. These live from yeasts and bacteria, Within two weeks (in a warm climate in just eight days), one generation (from egg to egg) will undergo three larval stages. The hibernation takes place as a doll. On the vine can fly on damaged berries microorganisms as Acetobacter (Acetic acid bacteria) transmitted and thereby the acid rot effect. The insect can also be in the cellar during fermentation vinegar sting cause.
A second, very closely related species is the one out Japan Cherry vinegar fly (Drosophila suzukii). In 2008 it was first in California discovered and spread from there to many neighboring US states. In 2009, the insect was observed in some European countries such as Spain, France, Italy and Slovenia, and from 2011 also in Switzerland, Austria and Germany. This can affect many host plants, with particularly red fruits such as cherries, strawberries, raspberries or red grapes are preferred. In the meantime, this new pest has become a real threat to fruit and wine growing. Due to the short generation cycle, the vinegar flies are difficult with insecticides combatted. After an infestation the breeding places must be destroyed, or the further spreading by disrupter (Pheromone traps) are prevented. See a listing of all pests and diseases below Vine enemies,