See below wine law,
Already in the antiquity attempts have been made to increase the quality of the wine through appropriate laws and regulations and to prevent abuse. There is numerous written evidence of this (see under literature ). The oldest wine law comes from the Babylonian ruler Hammurabi (1728-1686 BC), whose empire at that time almost the entire Mesopotamia included. The law of the Roman Republic also regulated the sale (especially wholesale) of wine and defined in the individual laws what quality guarantee the buyer could expect and how the wine could be marketed. Quality criteria and classes were introduced in the individual countries in the early Middle Ages. Emperor Charlemagne (742-814) passed corresponding laws.
In the 17th century Burgenland (Austria) had the following four stages: Vinum Nobile (fine wine, breakout wine made from dried berries), Vinum Bonum (quality wine from the varieties Furmint, Augster and Muskateller), Vinum Mediocre (wine of medium quality) and Vinum Cibale (Dining wine or table wine). in the Wien In the 18th century there were the quality levels of manorial wine (only for court tables), officer wine and soldier's wine. At that time, starting in Spain ( Rioja ), Portugal ( port wine ) and Italy ( Chianti ) started to differentiate wines in two quality classes, namely qualitatively better with and qualitatively less without naming the geographically clearly defined origin, This led to the concept of Romanesque wine law,
From the end of the 19th century onwards, everyone was wine-producing countries strict laws have been created to ensure or increase quality and to oppose wine adulteration to protect. Back then there were still big differences. Finally, as a supplement to this, it became established in France from the 1930s appellation system as a role model for most European countries. On the basis of these provisions, within the European Union an extensive set of laws and regulations has been created. The laws of the member states are based on this, although there are country-specific deviations in detail.
The standard work in Germany is the "Weinrecht" (Walhalla publishing house, Wilhelm Schevardo and Josef Koy), which in the edition published in December 2019 comprises 4,570 pages plus CD-ROM. It offers the wine law of the EU, the Federal Republic and the federal states. Another work is the "Weinrecht Commentary" by Prof. Dr. Hans-Jörg cook, The standard work in Austria is the "Weingesetz" (Manz publishing house, Hannes Mraz and Hans Valentin), which comprises 816 pages in the 5th edition published in 2018. It offers a comprehensive presentation of the entire wine law including all regulations and EU regulations. There is also the electronic database RIS (legal information system), which contains, among other things, wine law issues.
Depending on the climatic conditions, Europe is divided into the three main zones A, B and (with subzones) C. There are different requirements or exemptions for certain wine making processes growing zone, Each EU member state can allow certain oenological processes or treatments for experimental purposes. A limitation for such wines is that the entire "trial" within a member state may not extend beyond three years (a one-time extension to a further three years is permitted). However, the wine treated in this way must not be sold in other EU Member States.
In addition to the EU requirements, there are more extensive or often even stricter country-specific provisions in the individual countries, most of which also vary from region to region to individual locations or even certain wines. In addition to the above, these regulations also regulate points such as certain ones education forms, Regulations regarding the winemaking, specific Bottle shapes (such as the bocksbeutel ), Minimum aging times for wines (barrel and / or bottle), wine names and earliest time of marketing. The review of these rules by official bodies is also defined. The exact regulations are listed under the respective countries.
In the New world however, the wine law provisions are mostly far less strictly regulated. The normative power of the factual applies in most countries. One orientates oneself very strongly on the consumer wishes, which also leads to a certain uniformization of the wine styles. In this context it is especially in the United States the term Coca-Cola wines...