See below wine law,
Already in the antiquity Attempts have been made to increase the quality of wine through appropriate laws and regulations and to prevent abuse. There are numerous written documents (see literature ). The oldest wine law comes from the Babylonian ruler Hammurabi (1728-1686 v. Chr.), Whose empire at that time almost the entire Mesopotamia included. Also in the right of the Roman republic the sale (especially the wholesale trade) of wine was regulated and defined in the individual laws, which quality guarantee the buyer expects and how the wine could be marketed. In the individual countries quality criteria and classes were introduced already in the early Middle Ages. Emperor Charlemagne (742-814) issued appropriate laws.
In the 17th century there were four stages in Burgenland (Austria): Vinum Nobile (fine wine, dry berry from Trockenbeeren), Vinum Bonum (quality wine from Furmint, Augster and Muskateller), Vinum Mediocre (medium quality wine) and Vinum Cibale (Food or table wine). in the Wien of the 18th century, there were the quality levels Herrschaftswein (only for Hoftafel), officer wine and soldier's wine. At that time, starting in Spain ( Rioja ), Portugal ( port wine ) and Italy ( Chianti ) started distinguishing wines into two quality classes, namely qualitatively better with and qualitatively less without naming the geographically clearly defined ancestry, This resulted in the consequence of the concept of Roman wine law,
From the end of the 19th century are then in all wine-producing countries Strict laws have been created to safeguard and improve the quality and against wine adulteration to protect. At that time there were still big differences. Finally, as a complement to it, established in the 1930s in France appellation system as a model for most European countries. Based on these provisions, within the European Union created an extensive legal and regulatory framework. This is based on the legislation of the member states, with country-specific deviations in detail.
The standard work in Germany is the "Weinrecht" (Walhalla publishing house, Wilhelm Schevardo and Josef Koy), which in the edition published in June 2012 comprises 4.068 pages in four folders plus CD-ROM. It offers the wine law of the EU, the Federal Republic of Germany and the federal states. Another work is the "Weinrecht commentary" by Prof. dr. Hans-Jörg cook, The standard work in Austria is the "wine law" (Manz publishing house, Hannes Mraz and Hans Valentin), which in the 2012 published 5th edition comprises 818 pages. It provides a comprehensive account of the wine law including all regulations and EU regulations. Furthermore, there is also the electronic database RIS (legal information system), where, among other things, wine-related matters are included.
Depending on the climatic conditions, Europe is divided into the three main zones A, B and (with subzones) C. For certain winemaking procedures, there are different requirements or exemptions ever growing zone, Certain oenological procedures or treatments may be authorized by any EU Member State for experimental purposes. A limitation of such wines is that the entire "trial" within a Member State may not extend for more than three years (a one-off extension to another three years is allowed). However, the wine so treated must not be sold to other EU Member States.
In addition to the EU requirements, there are also country-specific provisions which are often stricter or even more stringent in the individual countries, and which are usually also different by region, growing area down to individual locations or even specific wines. In addition to the above, these rules also regulate items such as certain education forms, Regulations regarding the winemaking, specific Bottle shapes (such as the bocksbeutel ), Minimum expansion times of wines (barrel and / or bottle), wine names and earliest time of marketing. The review of these rules by official bodies is also defined. The exact rules are listed below each country.
In the New world on the other hand, the provisions on wine are usually much less strictly regulated. In most countries the normative force of fact applies. One orients itself very strongly on the consumer's desires, which also leads to a certain uniformity of the wine styles. In this context is specifically in the...