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Eucharist

Eucharist (GB)

Within the Catholic church there have been the following issues for centuries: Wine for all believers participating in the Mass or only for the priest? It absolutely has to White wine or red wine be or doesn't it matter? Can the wine be mixed with water? Are instead of wine too grape juice. sparkling wine or other drinks allowed? And how do you deal with these questions, which are highly discussed by many highly educated clergymen, or the problematic consumption of alcohol of children, the sick and alcohol addicts? And last but not least: Does the wine ( altar wine ) are produced in a special way according to certain "Christian" rules?

Paten (Celebration Hostie), Chalice, Goblet (with Hosts) and Velum

That sounds strange at first glance, because the answer should actually be clear and unambiguous. The origin lies in the famous sacrament, in which Jesus enjoyed bread and wine with his disciples on the eve of his death on the cross and ordered them to continue the custom in his memory. The Church otherwise invokes unconditional interpretation or observance of Jesus' words, so why ask these questions here at all? The problem escalated from the beginning of the Reformation at the beginning of the 16th century because Martin Luther and other reformers vehemently demanded unconditional observance of the words of Jesus.

In the Old Testament in the Bible Victim rituals described are spilled by the Jews as a symbol of prosperity, the atonement of guilt and as a sign of worshiping God, and animal blood as a symbol of life and thus returned to God. In the Christian church Wine and bread as a sacrament of the Lord's Supper (greek Eucharist = thanksgiving) has a mystical meaning. The king mentioned in the book of Genesis in the story of Abraham is considered a symbolic forerunner Melchizedek, after which also one of the numerous Bottle oversize is named for champagne.

According to Christian belief, bread and wine are actually transformed into Christ's body and blood at the Holy Mass (consecration = the substance; not in appearance) and is the culmination of this celebration. When the sacrament was received (communion = union), bread and wine were generally donated to all present in the beginning of the Christian community. From the Middle Ages, however, it was found in the Roman Catholic Church for purely practical reasons (e.g. due to lack of wine due to poor harvests) that only the priest consumes wine and the host (Latin sacrifice) so to speak as both forms - blood and body of Christ - applies or represents both.

Eucharist - grapes, wine chalice, host and Bible / priest with host

This innovation or interpretation was vehemently criticized by all reformers (Hus, Luther and Calvin) who granted wine to all believers. This was justified with the clear mandate during the sacrament with the disciples with the following words of Jesus: “Take and eat, this is my body, which is given for you. This does to my memory. Take and drink all of it, this cup is the New Testament in My Blood, which is shed for you for the forgiveness of sins. Do this as often as you drink to my memory ” . The statement "my blood" could indicate red wine, but of course that can no longer be determined. In the opinion of the Evangelical Church, the fact that wine was clearly meant (and not perhaps grape juice) clearly results from the fact that Jesus speaks of "this vine plant" and that it must have been wine without a doubt. By the way, at the time of the sacrament (spring), due to the lack of preservation at the time, there could no longer have been any unfermented grape juice.

The Swedish king Erik XIV (1533-1577) asked the Reichstag in 1562 whether another drink instead of wine (e.g. beer. grape juice, Milk, water ) may be used for the sacrament. The reason was the lack of wine due to the war against Denmark. This triggered the "liquoristic dispute" (lat. Liquor = liquid), which also dealt with the question of whether wine should at least be mixed with water. Martin Luther (1483-1546) categorically rejected them and insisted on bread and unadulterated wine. The distribution in both forms prevailed so much that the reception of the measuring chalice (Wine) was considered a public commitment to the Reformation. The Evangelical Communion rules were also laid down in the Augsburg Confession in 1530. The question of how alcoholics (or children) deal with it was (still applicable today) as follows: The Lord's Supper is not absolutely necessary for salvation, the sick simply have to do without the Lord's Supper and "this burden imposed by God must be borne become".

The Evangelical Church allows exceptions in justified cases for alcoholics and children. This is the acceptance in just one form, by passing on the wine goblet and thus avoiding it, or grape juice instead of wine. As the currently applicable rule, the Second Vatican Council (1962-1965) decided to allow both forms again with the permission of the bishop in charge. Incidentally, alcoholic priests also have to drink wine at the sacrament after the decision in 1983, since this is considered to be the central symbolism (from 1973 onwards, with the bishop's permission, they were allowed to drink grape juice instead after an abduction cure). You need to take at least a trace of the consecrated wine in the form of a host immersed in wine. The Methodist churches (free churches), which were widespread in England and the USA, largely carried out the practice of taking the sacrament in the 19th century grape juice to commit.

Regarding the question of which trade fair, how often and by whom altar wine (see also there), a presentation from the practice by the Catholic pastor Matthias Wunsch from Bamberg , who kindly provided the text. His practice fully complies with church law requirements: on working days and normal Sundays, I use a regional, dry Silvaner cabinet or something similar. On festive days there is something fine, for example at Christmas 2003 a 2000 Rieslan selection from Bürgerspital in Würzburg, On Maundy Thursday there is also home-made wine for the whole community for home-made bread ( Sylvaner and Müller-Thurgau ), for its genuineness the pastor can guarantee himself. The principle of “tiered solemnity” also rules the mess wine:

Simple and dry during Lent, full, ripe and perhaps a little bit sweet in festive times. For practical reasons, red wine is hardly used because it soils the chalice cloth. Wine is fundamentally the "matter" at every Mass in all Christian denominations. While the churches of the Reformation generally only celebrate the Eucharist on Sundays and public holidays, the practice has developed in the Eastern Churches two to three times a week in each congregation. In the Catholic Church there is a recommendation that every congregation and each priest celebrate the Eucharist almost every day, with the exception of approval depending on the needs of the congregation on Sundays and public holidays two or three times. The practice varies considerably depending on the denomination, country, region and also the specifications of the responsible bishop.

The quantity of the measuring wine results from the number of those from the chalice drink. If it is intended that only the priest drinks, the amount up to 0.1 liters is common. If the entire community drinks, the amount must be correspondingly larger. In the Evangelical Church, wine is generally enjoyed by all who go to the sacrament. In the Eastern Church, bread and wine are mixed before communion and distributed to all communicants by spoon. In the Roman Catholic Church only the priest drinks (especially on “simple” masses or occasions), on Sundays at least the helpers of the communion, often also the lecturers and altar servers; At bridal fairs or other special occasions, there is often a larger group (bridal couple, groomsmen, firmlings, cheering couple, etc.). On holidays it is also possible that the whole community can drink; useful z. B. on Maundy Thursday, Corpus Christi, Easter, First Communion and Primiz (first Mass of a newly ordained Catholic priest). Goblet communion can / should also be given at small group fairs. See also under church,

Chalice, goblet: Image by James Chan from Pixabay
Velum: From I, Łukasz Szczurowski , CC BY-SA 3.0 , Link
Grapes, Chalice, Bread: Creator = demarco / 123RF
Priest with host: João Geraldo Borges Júnior from Pixabay

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