The vine subgenus Vitis subg. Vitis is divided into an American, an Asian and a European group according to the geographic occurrence. The European group is probably due to the Ice Age only one species (species) Vitis vinifera , under which all wild and domesticated grape varieties of European grapevines are subsumed. The name literally means the "wine-bearing vine".
There are two subspecies below. Subspecies Vitis vinifera subspez. sylvestris is the wild strain of today's noble vines. It was already used prehistorically, but plays no role in today's viticulture. The second subspecies Vitis vinifera subspez. vinifera (outdated district Vitis vinifera ssp. sativa) is a cultivated breed gradually outgrown by man. Under this species are understood all about 10,000 cultivated European varieties, of which only a few hundred have meaning.
The wild subspecies is also often called Vitis vinifera ssp. sylvestris Gmelin (also called Rheinische Wildrebe). The surname "sylvestris" means "living in the wild". The last part of the name refers to the German botanist Johann Georg Gmelin (1709-1755), who separated these subspecies for the first time. This species is dioecious (dioecious); that is, there are male and female plants with unisexual flowers. The term "secondarily sexual" means that the species is originally sexually bisexual, but one sex is suppressed. Their area extends from the Caucasus to the southern Mediterranean and north to the Danubian floodplain Lobau Wien (Austria) and to Germany in the Rhine Valley.
A regional expression of sylvestris is Vitis vinifera ssp. caucasica Vavilov (Caucasian wild grape, Danube wild grape), which occurred east of the Caucasus in Afghanistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Iran and Turkmenistan. It was first introduced by Russian botanist Nikolai I Vavilov (1887-1943). Today, this differentiation can be attributed to the remaining ones Wild vines but no longer understand.
Wild species of the species Vitis vinifera outlasted the Ice Age on the Black Sea and the eastern Mediterranean. As already mentioned, only one species has survived due to the extreme environmental conditions. After the last ice age, the wild vines spread westwards and along the Mediterranean coast into the river meadows of southern and central Europe. They were still widespread in the temperate zones of Europe and the Near East until the second half of the 19th century. With the beginning of the intensive use of the forests in the 17th and 18th century, the vines climbing like vines in the trees were mostly cut off and destroyed.
On Rhine. Rhone and Danube (eg Vienna-Lobau), residual populations have been preserved to this day. The wild vines have been cultivated by humans over the course of millennia. The cultivated subspecies Vitis vinifera ssp. vinifera includes all European grapevine cultivars without introgression of other species. This species is monoecious (monoecious) with mostly hermaphrodite flowers. That is, they are female and male organs in one blossom united. The old name part sativa (literally "sown") means the "cultivated one". The first varieties are probably first in Transcaucasia emerged.
To be generally separated from Vitis vinifera are the east of the Caucasus occurring mostly in China and Central Asia Asian game species, the so-called Asians Vines like that American vines a group of species (species). All European vines have 19 pairs of chromosomes (2n = 38), which is why they can easily be crossed with all Asiatic vines and even most American vines (because of the same numbers). The pedigree specification is Vitis vinifera or Vinifera .
There have been repeated attempts to structure the numerous cultivated vultures of Vitis vinifera according to geographical or botanical criteria. The most well-known system comes from the Russian researcher Dr. Alexander Negrul (1900-1971), who divided the European aspirations into three large regional groups, which he proles called. With the colonization European varieties were spread from the 16th century outside Europe to other continents, where they had previously not or no vines had given (see also under New world ).
Due to the general sensitivity of the European vineyard roots against those imported from America phylloxera European vines have not been cultivated rootless for well over a hundred years. Instead, so-called Edelreiser (tops of noble varieties) on reblausresistente documents grafted by American vines. This process is called finishing, These are resistant to phylloxera at the roots, so they are used as rootstocks for the grafted European noble varieties. The leaves of European vines, on the other hand, are mostly unaffected.
All varieties of European grapevine are equally vulnerable to the harmful fungi true and false imported from America mildew, Certain American wild vines, however, are usually largely against these fungi resistant, This positive feature is at the new breed mushroom-resistant grape varieties, in which Europeans are crossed with American vines, in order to combine the characteristic of the European vines "good wine quality" with the characteristic of the American vines "high mushroom resistance".
Since this means crosses between different species, these are also referred to as "interspecific hybrids". The results of sowing are always hybrids, All grape varieties described in this plant, where not specifically another species such as Vitis labrusca or Vitis coignetiae are descendants of the European species Vitis vinifera. See also a list of all resource specific keywords under this complex topic grapevine,