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oeil (F)
bud (GB)
gemma, occhio (I)
bourgeon (F)
yema (ES)
rebento (PO)

Name (also bud) for the youthful state of a new sprout or Triebes, At the Rebstock the eye is in the leaf axils on the Nodien (Nodes) of annual shoots (therefore also axillary or axillary bud). The winter eye consists of woody bracts, which are layered on top of each other in several layers and envelop the primary, already pre-differentiated systems of the new drive. The drive segments of the rung axis with the laterally angled systems for can already be seen in miniature form leaves (Leaves), tendrils (Fasteners) and inflorescences (Gescheine). The cavities in the bud are filled with fine wool hair, so that the drive system during the Hibernation by expulsion in the spring from injuries, frost and is protected from moisture. This is in the place of the nodes diaphragm (Wood bridge).

Eye (bud) - drawing and photo

Main eye and secondary eye

In addition to the main eye (plant for the main shoot), each winter bud also contains two eyes (side eyes) located laterally at the base of the bud base. These are also pre-differentiated, but have a simpler structure and serve as replacement buds in an emergency. As a rule, they only sprout when the main eye or the young instinct resulting from it is caused by external factors such as frost. game browsing or insect caused damage or in the spring for example by mite infestation remains inhibited in growth. Then the hormonal dominance of the main drive is broken, the sprouting of the eyes is no longer suppressed, and one or two shorter side shoots can form, which can, however, be sterile.

Summer eye and winter eye

After this expulsion During the growth period of the annual fruit shoot, new axillary buds form in the leaf axils after differentiation of the young leaves. These buds represent a double bud plant (double eyes), which consists of a summer eye and a winter eye. The summer eyes are the plant for those who grow from the leaf axils of the fruit branches in summer epicormic shoot, Their sprouting is hormonally controlled and variety-specific, but they can not sprout from the summer eyes. The summer eye is more developed than the winter eye until early summer. If it does not grow to the price of stinginess, it usually wilts, while the second bud plant (winter eye) swells in the leaf axil and ripens to the vital winter bud. This no longer sprouts, but survives the winter optimally protected due to the insulating wool under the woody bud scales.

With rising temperatures, the winter bud breaks in late spring expulsion to grow into a new long shoot, in the leaf axils of which double bud plants with summer and winter eyes are created again. Summer and winter buds are spatially closely associated in the leaf axil, but they are not equal to each other, but subsequent (unequal). Because the winter bud is anatomically the axillary bud of the single scaly leaf of the stinging bud, so that it represents a bud formation close to the base of a potential miser. In mild winters, a stunted summer bud can last for a year, so that in the next spring, it can develop into a base at the base of the fruit shoot. In winter pruning the vine is cut back to the desired number of winter eyes). It is a good unit of measurement Timber weight, you leave 30 eyes per kilogram of cut wood.

From the eyes left on the annual wood, new fruit shoots emerge in spring, which again have leaves, flowers, buds and tendrils. Without annual pruning, the annual buds of the shoots would develop new side stories with new shoots and buds every year. The vine would continue to expand in terms of area, rational management would no longer be possible record holds one Versoaln Vine in South Tyrol). Because this is too uncontrollably higher earnings and that would inevitably lead to a loss of quality in the wine, the pruning mentioned above is carried out.


Basal eyes are called the axillary buds at the base of annual shoots. This area is formed shortly after bud break. The internodes are still very compressed, so that several nodes with alternating armpit buds are closely aligned. These buds usually only sprout when pruning spigot (very short shoots) is cut back. Depending on the grape variety, the fertility of the basal eyes is reduced. There are even grape varieties like Luglienga Bianca (Silk grape), which is completely sterile on the first five basal eyes, making a head cut on cones would lead to total crop failure.

sleeping eye

One becomes a sleeping eye adventitious referred to, which is formed on the stem or stem of the vine. In contrast to the axillary buds, these were not pre-formed the previous year, but are only newly induced (triggered) in the event of stunted growth or injuries to the vine somewhere on the stem. The originating side shoots are called water shoots that serve as a reserve for emergencies. They are very vigorous and infertile in the first year because they are programmed for rapid growth in order to function as the caring or already dead main drive of the vine to be able to replace as quickly as possible. See a list of keywords relevant to the vine at grapevine,

Graphics: taken from Bauer / Regner / Schildberger, viticulture, ISBN: 978-3-70402284-4, Cadmos Verlag GmbH

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