In general, cultivated vines are homozygous (male and female flowers on the same plant), the Wild vines dioecious (separated on different plants). The cultured monoecious vine possesses hermaphrodite (Hermaphrodites), that is, it is the male and female sexual organs in one blossom united. The purely female wild vines have an important role in the development of varieties played. They were on one pollination and at best they were fertilized by another grape variety, which precluded inbreeding problems. When germinating a grape to a seedling is then through this natural crossing a new grape variety emerged. At a selfing (Self-fertilization) result from negative inbreeding effects mostly rather inferior offspring. Nature has been protected from bisexuality or self-sterility, as it were. For a fertilization with foreign genes leads to positive Heterosis effects (Changes to the parents) in the offspring.
Female varieties are in the breeding New varieties are very popular as mother varieties, because you do not neuter them and the missing male organ an undesirable selfing (Self-fertilization) is excluded. Because of the required pollination However, they are stable in income and often tend to Verrieseln, One advantage is larger berries, which is why female varieties often as table grapes be used. Fertilization is mainly done by wind from nearby vines with pollen from hermaphroditic flowers. If necessary, one planted in the vineyard strong flowering varieties as foreign pollinators, which are in or next to the line. There are relatively few vines as Pollenlieferant. However, the flowering time of the donor and recipient plants must be more or less in order (pollen is usually ripe a little earlier than the flower scars). Lots rootstocks are also purely female or male, because a fruit yield does not matter.
Pure female grape varieties are Alba Imputotato. Ardonnet. Arna-Grna. Bagrina. Barry. Bermestia Bianca. Bicane. Black Morocco. Blanc d'Ambre. Blatina. Blue Augster. Brighton. Camaralet de Lasseube. Cavus. Cetinka. Claverie Coulard. Coarnă Neagra. Coarnă Rosie. Dattier Noir. Dišeca Ranina. Doux d'Henry. Dr. Deckerrebe. Duchess of Buccleugh. François Noir. Fredonia. Fry. To lift. Higgins. Hunt. jumbo. Katta Kurgan. Kefessiya. Kéknyelü. Kharistvala Meskhuri. Kober 5 BB. Kontegalo. Kossuth Lajos. Krona. Lambrusco di Sorbara. Lindley. Madeleine Angevine. Madeleine x Angevine 7672. Maratheftiko. Marufo. Moscatel Rosado. Munson. Negru Virtos. Nimrang. ohanes. Ouliven. Palestina. Paugayen. Picolit. Plechistik. Pukhliakovsky. Querol. Rosenmuskateller (1), Sarba. Sary Pandas. Black Heunisch. Scuppernong. Severny. Seyanets Malengra. Solonis. St. Pepin. Sysak. Tavkveri. Taylor. Tigvoasa. Tintora. TorrontÃ © s Mendocino. White Augster. Zarya Severa and Zimmettraube,