Term for the practice in agriculture, by supply of nutrients mineral and organic nature a shortage in ground compensate. The name derives from "dung" (excrement of herbivores, especially ungulates). This oldest form of fertilizer was used at least six millennia ago. Targeted fertilization began in the 18th century with wood ash, lime and marl. Around the year 1840, the German chemist Justus Liebig (1803-1873) demonstrated the growth-promoting effects of potassium, phosphorus and nitrogen. He wrote in his main work "Organic Chemistry in its Application to Agriculture and physiology ": The soil must be fully recovered, what it is taken by harvesting.
Of course, these principles also apply to viticulture. During the annual growth cycle in the vineyard, large amounts of nutrients are extracted from the soil. Losses are caused by leaching (on light soils, especially of boron, potassium and magnesium), erosion (Soil erosion especially on slopes), gaseous loss (especially nitrogen) and determination (binding of nutrients in non-plant-available form), as well as the grape harvest. A vine with about 200 leaves produced in the annual growth cycle about half a kilo of dry matter, that is shoots. leaves and grapes, Within the EU there are legally defined fertilizer regulations for agricultural land.
Of the Rebstock Unlike other plants, it has lower demands on soil fertility. It is a phenomenon that there are many famous vineyards with top wines, which often have a relatively poor soil. A certain nutrient stress can even have a very positive effect. However, this does not mean that the wine quality increases automatically as the soil becomes increasingly barren. Too little (deficiency) is just as negative as too much (over-fertilization). The required fertilizer measures usually need to be checked every five to six years by soil testing. This usually includes the determination of inventories boron. potassium. calcium (Lime), magnesium. phosphorus and nitrogen, as well as the pH and humus content, Various analysis methods are Bonitur. EUF method and Nmin method,
The type of binding distinguishes between organic and mineral fertilizers. Although often only mineral fertilizers are referred to as "artificial fertilizers", of course, organic fertilizers are produced artificially (synthetically). In the mineral (inorganic) fertilizer, the elements are mostly in the form of salts such as nitrates (nitric acid), phosphates (phosphoric acid) and sulfates (sulfuric acid). The minerals extracted by mining are usually chemically modified with considerable difficulty. Only in smaller quantities are they used such as, for example, potash salts and lime in an unrefined form.
It is differentiated according to the form (solid or liquid) and their effect (quickly effective, long-term, depot). There are one-nutrient fertilizers (just one nutrient, eg nitrogen) and multi-nutrient fertilizers (eg combination of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium). The mineral fertilizer is absorbed mainly by the vine roots. The plant could also be over the leaves completely nourish. Therefore, foliar fertilization in the spray process is becoming increasingly important. Nitrogen and magnesium can thus be supplied in less amount than in the soil fertilizer. A special form of fertilization is the fertigation (Irrigation fertilizer), in which nutrients in combination with an artificial irrigation be supplied.
The organic fertilizers are usually of animal or vegetable origin, but are also synthetically produced such as urea. Often these are bound to carbon. In most cases, it is agricultural waste such as blood meal, fish meal, manure (urine and feces), urea (Carbon dioxide diamide), horn shavings, manure, sewage sludge, bone meal, compost (rotten plant remains), Rebholz, Rhizinusschrot, stable manure and rape, Also the green manure by sowing of legumes (Legume) in nitrogen-poor soils, or the greening these include. The organic fertilization serves the formation of humus, the main food source of the microorganisms, These release plant-ingestible nutrients from organic matter. By organic fertilization is also a protection against erosion achieved what's in slopes important is. Organic fertilizers have a longer-term effect and are washed out more slowly than minerals.
In the last third of the 20th century, mineral fertilizers were increasingly criticized. Excessive use may increase the risk that the soil will be overfertilized and that the soil fauna will be adversely affected yield and the quality of the grapes goes. In extreme cases, it can kill the plants by plasmolysis (change of the cell substance) come. The overuse is for ecological Damage such as soil fatigue, lack of oxygen and fish deaths have been blamed. The fertilizers not absorbed by the plants can be flushed out into the groundwater and thereby endanger its quality. However, the often expressed criticism that mineral phosphates lead to the enrichment of the soil with cadmium and radioactive uranium is exaggerated from today's perspective. Some fertilizers such as nitrogen contribute to soil acidification. But this can be counteracted by liming. In any case, since the 1980s there has been a downward trend in mineral fertilizers.
Many wineries nowadays mostly only carry out organic fertilization and, if possible, dispense with mineral substances. Whether organic fertilizers can actually completely replace inorganic (mineral) fertilizers is in part also a matter of faith. In excess, both species are poor or lead to unwanted side effects. Horn chips, for example, consist of proteins and therefore can only nitrogen release. Organic fertilizers also contain others nutrient, Stable dung or compost even contain almost all of them and even in a fairly balanced ratio. However, there is a more or less pure lack of certain substances such as B-. Ca. Cu. Fe. K-. Mg. Mn. Mo-. P-. S- or Zn, then usually only mineral fertilizers come into question. Because these can be used much more targeted. In continuous field trials, the combination of organic and mineral fertilizer gave the best results.
in the Organic viticulture (as well as the two special forms Biodynamic viticulture and Bioenergetic viticulture ) there are restrictions in different forms. See also below Weingarten Care with a list of all measures in the vineyard during the growth cycle,