Term for the practice in agriculture, by supplying nutrients mineral and organic nature ground compensate. The name is derived from "manure" (droppings from herbivores, especially hoofed animals). This oldest form of fertilizer was used at least six millennia ago. A targeted fertilization started in the 18th century with wood ash, lime and marl. Around 1840, the German chemist Justus Liebig (1803-1873) demonstrated the growth-promoting effects of potassium, phosphorus and nitrogen. He wrote in his main work "Organic Chemistry in its Application to Agriculture and physiology “: The soil must be fully restored to what is taken from it by harvesting.
Of course, these principles also apply to viticulture. During the annual growth cycle large amounts of nutrients are extracted from the soil in the vineyard. Losses result from washing out (on light soils, especially of boron, potassium and magnesium) erosion (Soil erosion, especially on slopes), gaseous loss (especially nitrogen) and determination (binding of nutrients in a form not available to plants), as well as through the grape harvest. A vine with around 200 leaves produces annually growth cycle around half a kilo of dry matter, that is shoots. leaves and grapes, There are statutory fertilizer regulations for agricultural land within the EU.
The Rebstock In contrast to other plants, soil fertility is less demanding. It is a phenomenon that there are many famous locations with top wines, which often have a relatively poor soil. A certain nutrient stress can even have a very positive effect. However, this does not mean that the quality of the wine automatically increases as the soil becomes barren. Too little (lack) is just as negative as too much (over-fertilization). The necessary fertilization measures usually have to be checked every five to six years by soil tests. This usually includes determining inventories boron. potassium. calcium (Lime), magnesium. phosphorus and nitrogen, as well as the pH and humus content, There are different analysis methods Bonitur. EUF method and Nmin method,
A distinction is made between organic and mineral fertilization according to the type of binding. Although often only mineral fertilizers are called "artificial fertilizers", organic fertilizers are of course also produced artificially (synthetically). In mineral (inorganic) fertilizers, the elements are usually in the form of salts such as nitrates (nitric acid), phosphates (phosphoric acid) and sulfates (sulfuric acid). The minerals extracted from the mines are usually chemically modified in a very complex manner. They are only used in smaller quantities, such as potash salts and lime, in a non-refined form.
A distinction is made between the form (solid or liquid) and its effect (quickly effective, long-term, depot). There is one-nutrient fertilizer (only one nutrient, e.g. nitrogen) and multi-nutrient fertilizer (e.g. combination of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium). The mineral fertilizer is mainly taken up by the vine roots. However, the plant could leaves feed completely. That is why leaf fertilization in the spray process is becoming increasingly important. This means that nitrogen and magnesium can be added in a smaller amount than with soil fertilization. A special form of fertilization is fertigation (Irrigation fertilization), when the nutrients in combination with an artificial irrigation be fed.
The organic fertilizers are usually of animal or vegetable origin, but are also produced synthetically, such as urea. These are often bound to carbon. Mostly it is agricultural waste such as blood meal, fish meal, liquid manure (urine and faeces), urea (Carbonic acid diamide), horn shavings, liquid manure, sewage sludge, bone meal, compost (rotted plant remains), vinewood, castor meal, manure and rape, Green manure by sowing legumes (Legumes) for nitrogen-poor soils, or the greening these include. Organic fertilization is used to form humus, the main food source of the microorganisms, These release plant-absorbable nutrients from organic matter. Organic fertilization also provides protection against erosion accomplished what in slopes important is. Organic fertilizers work longer and are washed out more slowly than mineral ones.
In the last third of the 20th century, mineral fertilizers came under increasing criticism. If the use is too high, there is a risk that the soil will be over-fertilized and the soil fauna will be adversely changed, which in turn will be at the yield and the grape quality goes. In extreme cases, the plants can be killed by plasmolysis (change in the cell substance). The excessive use is for ecological Damages such as soil fatigue, lack of oxygen and fish death have been blamed. The fertilizers not absorbed by the plants can be washed out into the groundwater and thereby endanger its quality. However, the often voiced criticism that mineral phosphates lead to the enrichment of the soil with cadmium and radioactive uranium is exaggerated from today's perspective. Some fertilizers such as nitrogen contribute to soil acidification. However, this can be counteracted by liming. In any case, there has been a downward trend in mineral fertilizers since the 1980s.
Many wineries now mostly only carry out organic fertilization and, if possible, do without mineral substances. Whether organic fertilizers can actually completely replace inorganic (mineral) fertilizers is also partly a question of belief. In excess, both types are bad or lead to undesirable side effects. Horn chips, for example, consist of proteins and therefore can only nitrogen release. Organic fertilizers also contain others nutrient, Stable manure or compost contain almost all of them and even in a fairly balanced ratio. However, there is a more or less pure lack of certain substances such as B-. Ca. Cu. Fe. K-. Mg. Mn. Mo-. P-. S- or Zn, then usually only mineral fertilizers come into question. Because these can be used much more specifically. The combination of organic and mineral fertilizers gave the best results in long-term field trials.
in the Organic viticulture (as well as the two special forms Biodynamic viticulture and Bioenergetic viticulture ) there are restrictions in different forms. See also under Weingarten Care with a list of all measures in the vineyard during the growth cycle,