Name (also grafting, copulation, varelt fur) for the artificial, vegetative propagation of woody plants. This is most common for rose and fruit varieties. In principle, it is a transplantation of a part of the plant ( scion ) on the root part of another plant ( document ). The process can also be called Clone designate because genetically completely identical new plants arise from the original plants. This technique was already in the antiquity especially known for fruit and olive varieties and is from Cato the elder (234-149 BC) also mentioned in vines. The main goal is the preservation of special properties, especially of fruit-bearing original varieties but also ornamental plants, if their conservation is endangered by poor or disease-prone root systems, unsatisfactory growth strength (too strong, too weak) or incompatibility with the soil (e.g. lime) is.
Cause of the global processing of vines was the one imported from America from the middle of the 19th century phylloxera, In the extremely complex life cycle of the pest, the leaves and / or (which is much more dangerous) the roots are attacked above ground. The vines react as a defense reaction by forming Gallen (Leaves) or growths (roots) used by the phylloxera as food. The forms of growth at the roots are called Nodositäten (on young, woodless roots) and tuberosities (on old roots). Some of the American vine species are resistant to varying degrees. Phylloxera-resistant species form little to no growths at the roots. The picture shows one Europeans Vine with a deep hole-like depression and a phylloxera-resistant American vine, where, after the phylloxera tapping, the cork is sealed off.
After numerous failed attempts with sometimes absurd ideas, the idea finally came to life. Noble vines from European vines were grafted onto the rhizomes of selected American vines. The American species are resistant Vitis berlandieri (high lime tolerance, phylloxera resistant at the root), Vitis rupestris. Vitis riparia and the particularly phylloxera-resistant Vitis cinerea, From the end of the 19th century, crosses of various American species, but also of the European vitis vinifera, were made and the documents known today were selected from them. Ideally, they don't just point resistance against phylloxera and nematodes (Roundworms), but are also for various soil types suitable and harmonize with the growth properties of the respective noble rice (top part).
The character of the new vine is determined solely by the grafted noble variety, since the genetic mass of the noble rice is not mixed with that of the base, but remains unchanged. The non-species or rootstock is "only" for anchoring at the place of growth, for absorbing water and nutrients from the ground and to ward off the subterranean rebel stages. This is in contrast to breeding new grape varieties, each with half the characteristics of both parent varieties in a new combination. However, the different genetics of the pad have a certain influence on the vigor and the growth cycle such as fruit set as well as the tendency to diseases such as Verrieseln of the noble rice. This means that there are considerable physiological-chemical interactions between the base and the noble rice.
In all wine-growing countries around the world, processing is generally carried out today, although individual regions such as Argentina, Australia and Chile have so far been spared from phylloxera. But it is probably only a matter of time before the pest appears there too. Around 90% of all vines worldwide. In some wine-growing regions, vine varieties that are root-proof are cultivated despite the (low) presence of phylloxera, for example on the Canary Islands, in Burgenland in Austria, in the German wine-growing regions Franconia and Moselle, in the Swiss Valais, on the island of Sicily and at the foot of the French Pyrenees. The prerequisite for this is special soils in which the phylloxera does not feel well, therefore can only reproduce poorly or cannot flourish at all (see also under Sandweinpension ).
Today, there are other, additional reasons for refinement, such as the earnings to increase resistance to other pests or soil-borne vine diseases or to increase the tolerance to lime or salt. There are also disadvantages to grafting, for example the spread of virus when using virus-infected plant material (see under Certification of vines ). There are suitable documents for a wide variety of them climates. soil types, Locations and last but not least varieties, Depending on soil fertility, water balance, lime content, salt content and adapted to the growth and yield properties of the noble rice, the harmonizing underlay type must be selected. For that there is in the individual wine-producing countries official recommendations.
The parts required for refinement are produced in separate vineyards. The extraction of fine rice and documents as well as the refinement and subsequent "training" of the young plants take place in certified nurseries, Good maturation of the two parts of the plant requires well-matured, annual wood. The processing takes place from the beginning of March to the middle of April. An approximately six centimeter long fine rice is connected with an eye on it to the approximately 30 centimeter long base from which all eyes were cut out (blinded). The two parts must be a good one Pfropfaffinität (Compatibility), and have approximately the same shoot thickness and shoot cross-section, so that the interfaces can easily grow together. In the past, the finishing was done manually, today it is done by machine.
The noble rice is connected to the pad. There are different cutting shapes for the junction of the two parts. The most common form is the omega cut , named after the last letter of the Greek alphabet (Ω), which is also possible by machine. At lower loads, this enables four times more work than manual finishing (hourly output up to 500 finishing).
The copulation cut can also be carried out while the plant is at rest, since the bark does not have to come loose, as is the case with the Okulation necessary is. There is the simple form, in which the sloping, very smooth interfaces with a length of three to four centimeters are joined so that the bark fits on the bark and the Kambiumschichten lie on one another. This connection is usually considered to be less stable.
In the form of "copulation with counter tongue" (also tongue cut ), the interfaces are additionally provided with an incision that enables the two trees to be pushed into one another and anchored. The purpose is the greater strength of the connection and the creation of larger contact areas of the cambium layers, which promotes faster growth. A plate is a form in which the base and the noble rice do not have to have the same diameter. This form is possible for simple copulation as well as for copulation with counters. The goat's foot graft shown below is similar.
Other forms of earning are Okulationsschnitt or T-cut (which is rarely used for grapevines), goat's foot refinement (mainly for fruit trees), lamellar cut (for walnut), side sharpening (if the noble rice is weaker than the base), bark grafting (for fruit and Ornamental trees) and the special form Nicolieren (Okulation of documents with a third partner who mediates as an intermediate piece in case of incompatibility of the document and noble rice).
The plant remains in the first year nursery, where after finishing, advancement (start of shoot and root formation), schooling (growing out into a seedling) and hardening (preparation for exposure in the vineyard) take place. Only in the following year will the seedlings marketed and planted in the vineyard. The planting site should be a hand's breadth above the ground when planting and should not be covered with soil. As the trunk grows in thickness, a collar-like thickening forms on the wound, on which grafted vines can be easily recognized in the field. As an alternative, the refinement can also take place on a grafted vine in the vineyard, this is called grafting (also field, green or field processing). A question that is asked again and again is whether the wine is more refined, so-called root real Vines are not better quality; see under Pre-Phylloxera (before phylloxera).
Graphic bottom / top: Bauer / Regner / Schildberger, viticulture, ISBN: 978-3-70402284-4, Cadmos Verlag GmbH
Tuberosities: J. Schmid, F. Manty, B. Lindner, ISBN 978-3-934742-56-7 , GFDL 1.2 , Link 1 / Link 2
Omega cut: © www.rebschule-freytag.de
Copulation: © Johannes Hommel
Counter tongue: By Clemens PFEIFFER, CC BY 2.5 , Link
Goat's foot, bark, pointed: From MagentaGreen - Own work, CC-BY-SA 4.0 , Link 1 / Link 2 / Link 3