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grafting (GB)
innesto (I)
greffage, greffe (F)
injerto (ES)
enxertia (PO)
enten (N)

Name (also grafting, copulation, furs) for the artificial, vegetative propagation of woody plants. This is most common with rose and fruit varieties. In principle it concerns a transplantation of a plant part (Edelreis) on the root part of another plant (pad). You can also use the process as Clone denote because it originate from the original plants genetically identical new plants. This technique was already in the antiquity especially known for fruit and olive varieties and is from Cato the Elder (234-149 BC) also mentioned in vines. The main objective is the preservation of special properties especially of fruit-bearing origin varieties but also ornamental plants, if their conservation by poor or disease-prone root system, unsatisfactory growth strength (too strong, too weak) or incompatibility with the soil (eg lime) endangered is.

Lower part (rhizome) and upper part (precious rice)
taken from Bauer / Regner / Schildberger, Weinbau, ISBN: 978-3-70402284-4, Cadmos Verlag GmbH

Reason for the refining - the phylloxera

Cause of the global coverage of vines was imported from America in the middle of the 19th century phylloxera, After some time, they realized that some of the American Wild vines are resistant to the pest, so that the roots are indeed attacked, but not dying as in the European vine. Conversely, the European vines show a high resistance to the formation of phylloxera on the leaf, while some American wild species such as Vitis labrusca especially suffering from leaf bile. Complete phylloxera resistance indicates the species Vitis cinerea on. This forms no Nodositäten at all, so that the phylloxera can not feed on the roots. Other wild species coexist with the phylloxera, that is a phylloxera infestation induces the Wucherungs forms Nodositäten and tuberosities (Picture below) at the roots of lesser extent, but the roots do not die off and the damage is slight. The picture shows tuberosities in Europeans compared to American vines.


The solution of the problem

After numerous failed attempts one finally came up with the saving idea (if that were one or more, can not be determined anymore). On the rhizomes selected American vines were Edewlreiser of Europeans Vines grafted. In this way, the different resistance of both groups of varieties could be optimally combined. Especially reblausfest are the American species Vitis berlandieri (high lime tolerance, reblausfest at the root) and Vitis riparia (reblausfest at the root). Therefore, the two species were crossed with each other. From the seedlings are the known today documents not only resistance against phylloxera and nematodes (Thread worms), but also for a variety of soil types are suitable and harmonize well with the growth characteristics of the respective Edelreises (upper part).

The character of the new vine is determined solely by the grafted variety, since the genetic material of the scion does not mix with that of the base, but remains unchanged. The species or species-specific rootstock is "only" for anchoring to the growing place, for receiving water and nutrients from the ground and to ward off the underground phylloxera stages. This is in contrast to breeding new grape varieties, which each have half the characteristics of both parent varieties in a new combination. However, the different genetics of the pad has a certain influence on vigor and the growth cycle such as fruit set as well as the tendency to diseases like Verrieseln of the precious rice. This means that there are considerable physiochemical interactions between the underlay and the sweet rice.

In all winegrowing countries in the world today, a refinement is carried out in principle, although it individual regions, such as in Argentina, Australia and Chile have been spared by the phylloxera. But it is probably only a matter of time before the pest occurs there too. Around 90% of all vines worldwide. In some wine-growing regions, vines are cultivated despite the (low) presence of phylloxera, for example in the Canary Islands, in Burgenland, in the Franconia and Moselle regions of Germany, in the Swiss Valais, on the island of Sicily and at the foot of the French Pyrenees. However, this requires special soils, in which the phylloxera does not feel well, therefore only slightly increased or not at all flourish (see also under Sandweinpension ).

Today is also refined for other, additional reasons, for example, the earnings to increase resistance to other pests or soil-borne vine diseases or to increase the lime or salt tolerance. But there are also disadvantages of grafting, for example the spread of virus when using virus-infected planting material (see under Certification of vines ). Suitable documents are available for the most diverse climates. soil types, Locations and not least varieties, Depending on the soil fertility, water balance, calcium content, salinity and adapted to the growth and yield properties of the precious rice, the harmonious base variety must be selected. There are in the individual wine-producing countries official recommendations.

The production of the parts required for the processing takes place in separate vineyards. The extraction of noble vines and documents as well as the refinement and subsequent "training" of the young plants are carried out in certified nurseries, Prerequisite for a good adhesion of the two plant parts is well-matured, one-year old wood. The refinement takes place from early March to mid-April. An approximately six-centimeter long Edelreis is connected with an eye on it with the approximately 30 centimeters long base, from which all eyes were cut out (dazzled). The two parts have a good one Pfropfaffinität (Compatibility), and in about the same drive thickness and drive cross-section, so that the interfaces can easily grow together. Previously, the finishing was done manually, today, this is done by machine.

finishing forms

The sweet rice is connected to the base. For the connection point of the two parts, there are different sectional shapes. Diie common form is after the last letter of the Greek alphabet (Ω) called omega-section which is also mechanically possible. This allows for lower load compared to the manual finishing four times higher performance (hourly output to 500 finishes).

Refining - Omega cut

The Kopulationsschnitt (English copulation cut) can also be carried out in the rest period of the plant, since this does not have to solve the bark, as in the Okulation necessary is. There is the simple form, in which the oblique very smooth interfaces with three to four centimeters in length are joined against each other, so that bark fits on bark and the Kambiumschichten lie on one another. This compound is considered less stable. In the form with "Gegenzunge" (also tongue cut ), the interfaces are additionally provided with an incision, which allows telescoping and anchoring of the two trees. The purpose is the greater strength of the compound and the creation of larger contact surfaces of the cambium layers, which promotes faster integration. The Geißfußveredelung is a very similar form.

Picture left: By MagentaGreen - Own work, CC-BY-SA 4.0 , Link
Picture right: By Clemens PFEIFFER, CC BY 2.5 , Link

Other forms of thinning are the Okulationsschnitt or T-cut (rarely used on grapevines), goatfoot finishing (mainly in fruit trees), lamellar cut (in walnut), lateral tipping (if the crayfish is weaker than the base), barking (for fruit and vegetables ) Ornamental trees) and the special form Nicolieren (Documentation with a third partner, which mediates as an intermediate piece in case of incompatibility of underlay and sweet rice).

Geißfußpfropfen / bark plug / lateral Einspitzen
Images: MagentaGreen - Own Work , CC-BY-SA 4.0 , Link 1 / Link 2 / Link 3

Production in the nursery

In the first year the plant stays in the nursery where, after refining, there is a pursuit (beginning of shoot and root formation), schooling (outgrowing to a seedling) and hardening (preparation for exposure in the vineyard). Only in the following year will the seedlings marketed and planted in the vineyard. The site of adhesion should lie a hand's breadth above the ground when planted and should not be covered with soil. As the stem grows thicker, a collar-like thickening forms on the wound, allowing grafted vines in the field to be easily recognized. As an alternative, the finishing can also be done on an already grafted vine in the vineyard, this is called grafting (also field, green or outdoor processing). A recurring question is whether the wine is more unrefined, so-called root real Vines are not qualitatively better; see below Pre-Phylloxera (before phylloxera).

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