Designation (also grafting, copulation, furs) for the artificial, vegetative propagation of woody plants. Most commonly, this is common in rose and fruit varieties. In principle, it is a transplant of a plant part ( scion ) on the root part of another plant ( document ). You can also use the process as Clone denote, as originate from the original plants genetically identical new plants. This technique was already in the antiquity especially known for fruit and olive varieties and is used by Cato the Elder (234-149 BC) also mentioned in the case of vines. The main objective is the preservation of special properties especially of fruit-bearing origins, but also ornamental plants, if their conservation by poor or disease-prone root system, unsatisfactory growth strength (too strong, too weak) or incompatibility with the soil (eg lime) at risk is.
Cause of the global coverage of vines was imported from the mid-19th century from America phylloxera, In the extremely complex life cycle of the pest, the leaves are above ground and / or (which is much more dangerous) subterraneously infesting the roots. The vines react as a defense reaction through formation of Gallen (Leaves) or growths (roots), which are used by the phylloxera as food. The Wucherungsformen at the roots is called Nodositäten (on young, unboned roots) and tuberosities (at old roots). Some of the American vine species are resistant to varying degrees. Vine-resistant species produce little to no growth at the roots. The picture shows a Europeans Vine with a hole-like depression reaching far into the interior and a reblausresistente American vine where, after the phylloxera pitting, a closure by cork fabric takes place.
After numerous failed attempts with partly absurd ideas one finally came up with the saving idea. On the rhizomes of selected American vines, noble vines were grafted by European vines. Resistant are the American species Vitis berlandieri (high lime tolerance, reblausfest at the root), Vitis rupestris. Vitis riparia and the most resistant to rain Vitis cinerea, As early as the end of the 19th century, therefore, crops were made by various American species, but also with the European Vitis vinifera, and from these the documents known today are selected. Ideally, they do not just show resistance against phylloxera and nematodes (Thread worms) on, but are synonymous for various soil types suitable and harmonize with the growth characteristics of the respective Edelreises (upper part).
The character of the new vine is determined solely by the grafted noble variety, since the genetic material of the scion does not mix with that of the base, but remains unchanged. The species or species-specific rootstock is "only" for anchoring to the growing place, for receiving water and nutrients from the ground and to ward off the underground phylloxera stages. This is in contrast to breeding new grape varieties, each having half the characteristics of both parent varieties in a new combination. However, the different genetics of the pad has a certain influence on vigor and the growth cycle such as fruit set as well as the tendency to diseases like Verrieseln of the precious rice. This means that there are considerable physiochemical interactions between the underlay and the sweet rice.
In all wine-growing countries in the world, processing is now generally carried out, although individual regions, such as in Argentina, Australia and Chile, have so far been spared from phylloxera. It is probably only a matter of time before the pest occurs there as well. Worldwide there are about 90% of all vines. In individual wine-growing regions, vines are cultivated despite the (low) presence of phylloxera, for example in the Canary Islands, in Burgenland, in the Franconia and Moselle regions of Germany, in the Swiss Valais, on the island of Sicily and at the foot of the French Pyrenees. However, this requires special soils in which the phylloxera does not feel well, therefore only slightly increased or not at all flourish (see also under Sandweinpension ).
Today is also refined for other, additional reasons, for example, the earnings to increase resistance to other pests or soil-borne vine diseases or to increase the lime or salt tolerance. But there are also disadvantages of grafting, for example the spread of virus when using virus-infected planting material (see under Certification of vines ). Suitable documents are available for the most diverse climates. soil types, Locations and not least varieties, Depending on soil fertility, water balance, calcium content, salinity and adapted to the growth and yield properties of the precious rice, the harmonious base variety must be selected. There are in the individual wine-producing countries official recommendations.
The production of the parts required for the finishing takes place in separate vineyards. The extraction of precious veins and documents as well as the refinement and subsequent "training" of the young plants are carried out in certified nurseries, Prerequisite for a good adhesion of the two plant parts is well-matured, one-year old wood. The processing takes place from early March to mid-April. An approximately six-centimeter long Edelreis is connected with an eye on it with the approximately 30 centimeters long base, from which all eyes were cut out (dazzled). The two parts have a good one Pfropfaffinität (Compatibility), and in about the same drive thickness and drive cross-section, so that the interfaces can easily grow together. Previously, the finishing was done manually, today, this is done by machine.
The sweet rice is connected to the base. For the connection point of the two parts, there are different sectional shapes. The most common form is the omega cut named after the last letter of the Greek alphabet (Ω), which is also mechanically possible. This allows for lower load compared to the manual finishing four times higher performance (hourly output to 500 finishes).
The Kopulationsschnitt can also be performed in the rest period of the plant, since in this case the bark does not have to solve, as in the Okulation necessary is. There is the simple form in which the oblique very smooth interfaces with three to four centimeters in length are joined against each other, so that bark fits on bark and the Kambiumschichten lie on one another. This compound is usually considered less stable.
In the form of "copulation with opposite tongue" (also tongue cut ), the interfaces are additionally provided with an incision, which allows telescoping and anchoring of the two trees. The purpose is the greater strength of the compound and the creation of larger contact surfaces of the cambium layers, which promotes faster integration. As Anplatten a form is called, in the pad and scion do not need to have the same diameter. This form is possible both in simple copulation and in copulation with counter-tongues. The Geißfußpfropfung shown below is similar.
Other forms of thinning are the Okulationsschnitt or T-section (in the applied rather rarely in grapevine), the Geißfußveredelung (mainly for fruit trees), the sipe (in the case of the walnut), the lateral single peak (when the scion is weaker than the backing), which Rindenpfropfen (with fruit and Ornamental trees) and the special form Nicolieren (Documenting documents with a third partner, which mediates as an intermediate piece in case of incompatibilities between underlay and sweet rice).
In the first year the plant stays in the nursery where, after refining, there is a pursuit (beginning of shoot and root formation), schooling (outgrowth to a seedling) and hardening (preparation for exposure in the vineyard). Only in the following year will the seedlings marketed and planted in the vineyard. The site of adhesion should lie a hand's breadth above the ground when planted and should not be covered with soil. As the stem grows thicker, a collar-like thickening forms on the wound, allowing grafted vines in the field to be easily recognized. As an alternative, the refining can also be done on an already grafted vine in the vineyard, this is called grafting (also field, green or outdoor processing). A recurring question is whether the wine is more unrefined, so-called root real Vines are not qualitatively better; see below Pre-Phylloxera (before phylloxera).
Graphics lower part / upper part: Bauer / Regner / Schildberger, Weinbau, ISBN: 978-3-70402284-4, Cadmos Verlag GmbH
Tuberosities: J. Schmid, F. Manty, B. Lindner, ISBN 978-3-934742-56-7 , GFDL 1.2 , Link 1 / Link 2
Omega cut: © www.rebschule-freytag.de
Copulation: © Johannes Hommel
Opposite tongue: By Clemens PFEIFFER, CC BY 2.5 , Link
Geissfuß, Bark, Einspitzen: From MagentaGreen - Own work, CC-BY-SA 4.0 , Link 1 / Link 2 / Link 3