The addition of various flavorings to the wine to improve its taste and / or appearance or durable doing it is a practice that is thousands of years old. Many of the ancient wines were flavored. In old texts Mesopotamia there are recipes with the addition of honey, spices, myrrh and also drugs. The Germanic peoples presented this even before the turn of the times mead (Honey wine). With the Greeks, resin became, as it did with Retsina is still common today, but also various spices like absinthe. anise and pepper added. Spice wines were very popular with the Romans, for example the Piperatum (Pfeffer wine). But they also used lead in the form of lead white or smooth lead to the acid diminish and make the wine sweeter. Lead addition was also common in Europe well into the 18th century and was accordingly dangerous. In Stuttgart, some of the coopers Hans Jakob Erni's customer died of lead poisoning in 1708, the punishment is documented: "So his head was cut off in the city of residence for a well-deserved punishment ." have to drink their own wine.
The doctor Arnaldus de Villanova (1240-1311) first described the use of sugar "For the consultation of the wine", which was common for centuries. Still in the German winegrower's guide of 1807 it says: "Experience shows that the proper addition of sugar from every grape juice gives us an excellent wine that can stand a comparison with the best types." The Nuremberg Council ordered at the end of the 14th century that wine should only be "served on the bowls with ayrin (eggs), with milk, with raw salt, with griz (gries), with kyslingen (pebbles) with laym (clay) and daem (clay)" . In the Middle Ages, aromatization was carried out excessively in order to make wine more durable and the frequently occurring oxidation and to cover the frequently occurring vinegar taste.
Most practices would be considered today wine adulteration Describe (pantschen). There were countless substances like cinchona. cloves Elderberry honey ginger, Nuts, sage, stone clover, scarlet herb and cinnamon, as well as fruits and essences from it. It was a “hit” Hypocras, one after the Greek doctor Hippocrates (460-377 BC) named spice wine. This drink was popular in England until the 17th century, and that's where it came from mulled wine and Punch developed. Even today, alcoholic beverages are flavored or improved, the best known of which Marsala and wormwood, However, such products may only actually be used under certain conditions imposed by the EU Wine call. There is also the legal term for wine wine-based drink,
But you can also do that Barrique or the addition oenological tannins and Wood chips understand as a permissible type of flavoring in these cases, because this way flavorings such as vanillin and tannin get into the wine. Known flavored products are absinthe. Bitter Vino. Byrrh. Cinzano. Marsala. ouzo. Pernod. Retsina. Tsipouro and wormwood, Overseas there are (still) prohibited techniques in the EU to "improve the taste" of wine. These include Mega-Purple and Spinning cone column, In this context, the term is always the same taste Coca-Cola wine emerged. The Rhine-Hessian winemaker Andreas wagner, who is also known as a crime writer, described the problem very well in the "Hochzweitswein" plant, in which he has a wine dealer argue as follows:
“The devices have already been approved for dealcoholization in the EU. It is only a matter of time for the production of wine flavor concentrates. Outside pressure is growing. If this is done all over the world, we cannot ignore it. At most for a while. We are once again lagging behind in technical progress. The climate Change , the rising temperatures. Our German white wines lose some of their fruitiness in the heat. With the aroma management you can adjust the fruitiness again. So the demand is also growing steadily with us. The first demands for approval and all the associated technical options can already be heard clearly. "
Certain substances added for flavoring and expressly permitted must be included wine-based beverages on the label be declared. These include sweeteners, which are indicated by "with sweetener" or "with a type of sugar and sweetener" and when using aspartame (aromatic amino acid or synthetically produced sweetener) by specifying "contains a source of phenylalaline". In the USA, flavored low-alcohol wine drinks are canned at around 6% vol alcohol content such as B. "Chardonnay Coffee Cappuccino" (vanilla flavor) and "Cabernet Coffee Espresso" (chocolate flavor). In the EU is over 150 mg / l caffeine to indicate this with "increased caffeine content".
Complete lists of the numerous vinification measures or cellar techniques, as well as the wine, sparkling wine and distillate types regulated by wine law are under the keyword winemaking contain. There is extensive wine law information under the keyword wine law,