The addition of different flavorings to the wine, to taste and / or visually improve or durable to do is an already thousands of years old practice. Many of the ancient wines were flavored. Made in old texts Mesopotamia There are recipes with added honey, spices, myrrh and also drugs. The Teutons were the before the turn of the century mead (Honey wine) The Greeks became resin, as did the Retsina is still common today, but also different spices like absinthe. anise and pepper added. With the Romans spice wines were very popular, for example the Piperatum (Pfeffer wine). But they also used lead in the form of lead white or litharge to the acid to lessen and sweeten the wine. Lead addition was common in Europe until the 18th century and dangerous. In Stuttgart, some customers of the coop Hans Jakob Erni died of lead poisoning in 1708, the punishment is documented: "So he was beaten off to well-deserved punishment in the royal city." In other cases, one was content with the fact that such malefactors larger quantities had to drink their own wine.
The doctor Arnaldus de Villanova (1240-1311) first described the use of sugar "To the aeration of the wine", which then was common for centuries. Still in the German wine-growing director of the year 1807 stands: "The experience teaches us that by the proper addition of the sugar from each grape juice an excellent wine receive, which with the best kinds a comparison endures." The advice of Nuremberg commanded end of the 14th century that wine should be made " only with ayrin (eggs) on the skins, with milk, with raw salt, with griz, with kyslings (pebbles) with laym (loam) and dahem (clay)" . In the Middle Ages, the aromatization was operated excessively to make the wine more durable and the frequently occurring oxidation and cover the frequently occurring vinegar flavor.
Most practices would be considered today wine adulteration (Pantschen) denote. There were countless substances like cinchona. cloves, Elderberry, honey, ginger, Nuts, sage, clover, scarletwort and cinnamon, as well as fruits and essences used from it. A "hit" was the Hypocras, one after the Greek doctor Hippocrates (460-377 BC) named spiced wine. This drink was popular in England until the 17th century and then it became the mulled wine and Punch developed. Even today, alcoholic beverages are flavored or flavored, the best known of these are Marsala and wormwood, However, then such products may actually only under certain conditions imposed by the EU Wine call. Furthermore, there is the wine law term wine-based drink,
But you can also the Barrique or the addition oenological tannins and Wood chips understand as a permissible way of aromatization in these cases, because it flavorings such as vanillin and tannin get into the wine. Known flavored products are absinthe. Bitter Vino. Byrrh. Cinzano. Marsala. ouzo. Pernod. Retsina. Tsipouro and wormwood, Overseas there are (still) forbidden techniques in the EU for "improving the taste" of the wine. These include Mega-Purple and Spinning Cone Column, In this context, the concept of always tastes the same Coca-Cola wine emerged. The Rheinhessen winemaker Andreas wagner, who has also become known as a crime writer, has described the problem very well in the work "Hochzweitswein", in which he lets a wine merchant argue as follows:
"For de-alcoholization, the devices are already approved in the EU. This is only a matter of time for the production of wine flavor concentrates. The pressure from outside grows. If that's done all over the world, then we can not shut it off. At most for a while. Once again we are lagging behind in technical progress. The climate Change , the rising temperatures. Our German white wines lose some of their fruitiness in the heat. With the aroma management you can adjust the fruitiness again. The demand is growing constantly with us. The first demands for a release and all associated technical possibilities are already clearly heard. "
Certain substances added for the purpose of flavoring and expressly permitted must be included wine-based drinks on the label be declared. These include sweeteners, which may be indicated by the words "with sweetener" or "with a sugar type and sweetener" and when using aspartame (aromatic amino acid or synthetically manufactured sweetener) by the indication "contains a Phenylalalinquelle" are to be specified. In the US, flavored low-alcohol wine drinks are canned at about 6% vol alcohol content such as B. "Chardonnay Coffee Cappuccino" (vanilla flavor) and "Cabernet Coffee Espresso" (chocolate flavor) offered. In the EU is over 150 mg / l caffeine indicate this with "increased caffeine content".
Complete listings of the numerous vinification measures and cellar techniques, as well as the wine-regulated wine, sparkling wine and distillate types are under the keyword winemaking contain. Comprehensive information on wine law is available under the keyword wine law,