Large group of aromatic substances in the Wine, the primary odor, but also taste be perceived and significantly influence character or quality. In most cases, they are volatile compounds that are initially odorless in the grapes than glycosides (Sugar compounds) are bound. They are therefore called aroma precursors, from which the primary aromas develop during maturation. Great influence on the aromas during the ripening period to have soil type. temperature. exposition (Sunlight) and water content in the ground. The ideal condition is optimal physiological maturity the grapes given. By means of the measuring method Glycosyl-glucose assay the flavor precursors in the grapes can be quantified and a quality forecast made.
In the fermentation and during the expansion, new ones form differently depending on the container and the way of dismounting flavors (Secondary flavor). Other flavorings arrive at Barrique from the stave wood to the wine. In the bottle aging or increasing aging the aromas are going through hydrolysis slowly converted and form the third flavor (tertiary flavor). Overseas, there are attempts to process through appropriate enzymes to accelerate. Even the smallest amount of billionth of a gram in one liter of wine is enough to notice. For an analysis far smaller amounts of trillions of grams are sufficient.
The wine contains around 8,000 different substances. The roughly 50 most common of these, together with their interaction, make up the quality or the very special quality of a wine. Especially the diverse ones flavorings shape that Aroma or that bouquet a wine and can be from a professional degustator (Wine taster) at one wine review also be clearly identified and named. This can also be learned through appropriate exercise. Even by inexperienced persons, the flavors of bitter almond. butter. Cassis (blackcurrant or ribisl), strawberry. clove. yeast. coffee, Cherry, coconut. nutmeg. paprika. pepper. vanilla. lemon and plum are recognized.
Aromas or aroma groups in the wine are anthocyanins. carotenoids. Damascenone. ester. eugenol. furfural. lactones. lignin. linalool. Megastigmatrienon. methoxypyrazine. nerol. phenols. sotolone. tannins. terpenes. thiols. vanillin and cinnamate, Certain of them work like pheromones with aphrodisiac effect. Taste-changing also affect the oenological enzymes and oenological tannins, Where by forbidden substances the border to wine adulteration is exceeded, z. T. through Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) or mass spectrometry even at very low levels (0.001%) are found (see also ADI ).
The successful deciphering of the complete grape genome by Italian and French scientists was announced in 2007. Among other things, some wine aromas have been genetically identified. The completely new analysis method metabolomics was tested at the Max Planck Institute. See under this topic DNA and molecular Genetics, as well as under the keywords aroma wheel (Aroma circle), of fragrances. flavoring and Coca-Cola wines, For the other ingredients in wine, see total extract,