Large group of aromatic substances in the Wine, the primary odor, but also taste are perceived and significantly influence character or quality. Mostly there are volatile compounds that are initially odorless in the grapes glycosides (Sugar compounds) are bound. They are therefore called aroma precursors, from which the primary aromas then develop during ripening. Great influence on the aroma formation during the ripening period to have soil type. temperature. exposition (Sun exposure) and water content in the ground. The ideal condition is optimal physiological maturity the grapes given. By means of the measuring method Glycosyl-glucose assay the aroma precursors in the grapes can be quantified and a quality forecast can be made.
In the fermentation and during the expansion new ones are formed depending on the container and type of expansion flavors (Secondary flavor). Further flavorings arrive at Barrique from the barrel wood into the wine. In the bottle aging or increasing aging the flavors are through hydrolysis slowly transformed and form the third aroma (tertiary aroma). Overseas there are attempts to complete the process by appropriate enzymes to accelerate. Even the smallest amounts of a billionth of a gram in a liter of wine are enough to perceive them. Far smaller amounts of trillionths of a gram are sufficient for an analysis.
Around 7,000 different substances are contained in the wine. The approximately 50 most common of these, together with their interaction, make up the nature or the very special quality of a wine. Especially the diverse ones flavorings shape that Aroma or that bouquet of a wine and can from a professional degustator (Wine taster) at one wine review also be clearly identified and named. This can also be learned through appropriate practice. Even inexperienced people can easily smell the aromas of bitter almond. butter. Cassis (black currant or ribisl), strawberry. clove. yeast. coffee Cherry coconut. nutmeg. paprika. pepper. vanilla. lemon and plum can be recognized.
Aroma substances or aroma groups in the wine anthocyanins. carotenoids (and resulting from chemical processes norisoprenoids such as B. Damascenone and TDN ) ester. eugenol. furfural. lactones. lignin. linalool. Megastigmatrienon. methoxypyrazine. nerol. phenols. sotolone. tannins. terpenes. thiols. vanillin and cinnamate, Some look like pheromones with aphrodisiac effect. They also have a taste-changing effect oenological enzymes and oenological tannins, Where the limit to wine adulteration is exceeded, z. T. through Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) or mass spectrometry even with the smallest amounts (0.001%) can be determined (see also under ADI ).
The successful decoding of the entire grape genome by Italian and French scientists was announced in 2007. Among other things, some wine aromas have been genetically identified. The completely new analysis method metabolomics was tested at the Max Planck Institute. See on this topic at DNA and molecular Genetics, as well as under the keywords aroma wheel (Aroma circle), of fragrances. flavoring and Coca-Cola wines, For the other ingredients in wine, see below total extract,
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