The French pharmacist Jean-Baptiste François (1792-1838) from Châlons-en-Champagne (until 1997 Châlons-sur-Marne) invented in 1836 a method to control the sugar content before the bottle fermentation of champagne allowed. This made it possible at the Dosage to precisely determine the "Liqueur de tirage" (filling dosage). This method became known as "Réduction François". Up to this point, at least 50%, or in extreme cases even 80% of the bottles, broke due to excessive overpressure. Therefore, the extremely expensive champagne was therefore affordable only for nobility or wealthy.