This grape variety name dates from the early Middle Ages and does not name a single variety, but a group. It is about a designation of origin, allegedly down to the Frankish king Charlemagne (742-814) goes back. After the conquest of Gaul, the Franks have brought the "nobler" varieties from today's France to Germany and later called "Frankish". The first explicitly mentioned were Moreillon ( Pinot 1283, Traminer (Savagnin Blanc) 1349 and Riesling 1435. In addition, the old varieties count Elbling. Orleans and Sylvaner to. Together with the Heun varieties, the Frankish are the most important gene pool of many of today's European standard vines.
In the Middle Ages, the Franconian varieties were commonly considered the "better" or more valuable and the Heun (hunnic) varieties than the "minor" vines. The most important Franconian varieties were Traminer and the Pinot varieties (especially Pinot Noir ), by mutations and natural crosses especially with White Heunisch ( Gouais blanc ) the starting point for many Pinotsorten were. The close neighborhood of Heunisch, Traminer and Pinot im Mixed sentence In the vineyards of the Middle Ages promoted this development by accidental crossing close varieties. Count Eberhard von Württemberg III. (1362-1417) recommended in 1409 his peasants to grow in the vineyard half Heunisch and half Franconian.
The naturopath and mystic Hildegard von Bingen (1098-1179) writes that "the Franconian and strong wine causes the blood to rise and therefore has to be mixed with water, whereas in the case of Hunnic and naturally watery wine it is not necessary". Under "Hunnish" is possibly not the Asian tribe to understand, but to note that "heunisch" in Low German meant "huge or big" and thus meant the "inferior and großbeerigen" grape varieties. The Heunisch distinguished high fertility, vitality and vigor - he is considered "historical mass support ". Since in the Middle Ages mainly the earnings In the foreground, it was large vegetatively propagated,
In ancient sources, the "noble varieties" with the name part "Franconian", "Franke", "Francia" "Francica", "Fren (t) sch" and the like are mentioned, this often with the berry color or berry or Grape size was supplemented. Confusingly, different varieties were often referred to by the same name. But it also happens that a variety carries different names. The name Großfränkisch was used for Chasselas but also for Räuschling used. This designation is also in 1546 in the "Kreütter book" of the well-known German botanist Hieronymus buck (1498-1554). Among those mentioned there as well green Fränkisch is mglw. the Sylvaner meant. This was however also Frankentraube (also for Blue hanging man. Räuschling. Tauberschwarz ) called. In the meantime, however, a separate variety of this name has been identified.
Old names for the Traminer (Savagnin Blanc) or the varieties Gewurztraminer and Savagnin Rose were Adelfrankke , Kleinfränkisch , Rotfränkisch and Weißfränkisch , but also French , Frenschen , Frenscher , Frentsch and the like. But also the old variety Greenfinch (probably identical to Sauvignon Blanc ) was called Adelfrank and similar. One kind Adel Fränkisch will be in VIVC catalog as independent or direct offspring led by the Traminer. Under Black Franconian is the Blaufränkisch meant. Furthermore, in a source from the year 1661 a variety Grobfränkisch (?) Mentioned. See also below Antique grape varieties,