This grape variety name comes from the early Middle Ages and does not designate a single variety, but a group. It is about a designation of origin that supposedly down to the Frankenkönig Charlemagne (742-814) goes back. After the conquest of Gaul, the Franks brought the "nobler" varieties there from today's France to Germany and later referred to them as "Frankish". The first explicitly mentioned were Moreillon ( Pinot ) 1283, Traminer (Savagnin Blanc) 1349 and Riesling 1435. The old varieties also count Elbling. Orleans and Sylvaner to. Together with the Heunic varieties, the Franconian are among the most important gene pools of many of today's European standard vines.
In the Middle Ages, the Franconian varieties were generally considered to be the "better" or more valuable and the Heunian (Hun) varieties as the "lesser" vines. The main Franconian varieties were Traminer and the Pinot varieties (especially Pinot Noir ), by mutations and natural crossings, especially with white Heunisch ( Gouais Blanc ) the starting point for many Pinotsorten were. The close neighborhood of Heunisch, Traminer and Pinot im Mixed sentence in the vineyards of the Middle Ages this development was encouraged by chance crossing related varieties. Count Eberhard of Württemberg III. (1362-1417) recommended in 1409 his farmers to grow half Heunisch and half Franconian in the vineyard.
The naturopath and mystic Hildegard von Bingen (1098-1179) writes that "the Franconian and strong wine causes the blood to pound up and therefore has to be mixed with water, whereas this is not necessary with the Hun wine, which is naturally watery". "Hunish" may not be understood to mean the Asian tribe, but it should be noted that "Heunian" in Low German meant "huge or large" and meant the "lesser and large-berry" grape varieties. The Heunisch was characterized by high fertility, vitality and vigor - it is considered “more historical mass support ". Because in the Middle Ages mainly earnings was in the foreground, it became large vegetatively propagated,
In old sources, the "noble varieties" with the name "Franconian", "Franke", "Francia" "Francica", "Fren (t) sch" and similar are called, whereby this often with the berry color or berry or Grape size was added. Confusingly, different varieties were often given the same name. But it also happens that a variety has different names. The name Großfränkisch was used for Chasselas, but also for Räuschling used. This designation is also used in 1546 in the "Kreütter Buch" by the well-known German botanist Hieronymus buck (1498-1554). Under that also mentioned there green Fränkisch is possible. the Sylvaner meant. However, this was also a grape (also for Blue hangman. Räuschling. Tauberschwarz ) called. In the meantime, however, an independent variety of this name has also been identified.
Old names for the Traminer (Savagnin Blanc) or the game types Gewurztraminer and Savagnin Rose were noble francs , small franconian , red franconian and white franconian , but also French , Frenschen , Frenscher , Frentsch and similar. But also the old variety Greenfinch (which is probably identical to the Sauvignon Blanc is) was called a noble franc and similar. The Austrian variety is among Black Franconian Blaufränkisch meant. Another two independent varieties with the name part "Franconian" are Adel Fränkisch and bird Franconian,