The region (Friuli for short) with the capital Trieste lies in the extreme northeast Italy, It borders north Austria and to the east Slovenia, The cross-region landscape Friuli forms the majority of the region and includes its provinces Pordenone and Udine, parts of Gorizia (but not Trieste), as well as the province of Belluno and 11 municipalities of the province of Venice in Veneto, The area has always been a border country with changing rule under Rome, Byzantium, Venice and Habsburg Empire. 181 BC The Romans founded the colony Aquilieia and brought their wine culture with them. But they already found one of them Celts established viticulture and developed it further, as evidenced by many archaeological finds. Julius Caesar (100-44 BC) then expanded the rule, the name Julisch (Giulia) also goes back to him. In 53 BC He founded the city of Forum Iulii (Julius' market square) (today's Cividale), from which Friuli developed over time.
The Greek author Strabo (63 BC to AD 28) reports that the fertile plain with the city of Aquileia produced wines in abundance, so that the neighboring peoples (Karnier, Japyder, Pannonier and Illyrer) came for shopping. The Roman author Pliny the Elder (23-79) reports on the famous ancient wine Pucinum, which was even delivered to the court of Emperor Augustus (63 BC to 14 AD). The still existing Aquileia near the Adriatic coast was the second most important city of the empire after Rome, because from here all trade routes to the north were controlled. In the 15th century the republic dominated the entire Mediterranean with its galleys Venice the western part of the large area was conquered, while the eastern part, separated by the Judrio river, around the present-day Slovenian city of Gorizia (Goricia) was long under the rule of the Habsburg Empire. This separation has had an impact in viticulture to this day, there is a west dominated by red wine varieties and an east dominated by white wine varieties.
The vineyards cover around 24,000 hectares of vineyards. Up to the mid-1960s, around 80% of red wines in Friuli, mostly from Merlot, were still produced in mostly simple quality. With the introduction of modern methods such as chilled fermentation, the region has developed into the Italian white wine center in just one generation. The full-bodied white wines are considered the best in Italy. Thousands of hectares of vineyards with native varieties were cleared and planted with international varieties. Friuli is at the forefront of vine cultivation, more than half of the young vines planted in Italy come from nurseries of the region.
The main types of white wine are Bianchetta Trevigiana. Chardonnay. Glera - formerly Prosecco, Glera Lunga - formerly Prosecco Lunga, Malvasia (Malvasia Istriana = Malvazija Istarska ), Moscato Giallo ( Muscat Blanc ) Müller-Thurgau. Picolit, Pinot Bianco ( Pinot Blanc ), Pinot Grigio ( Pinot gris ) Ribolla Gialla, Riesling Renano ( Riesling ), Sauvignon ( Sauvignon Blanc ), Friulano or Tai - formerly Tocai Friulano ( Sauvignonasse ), Ribolla ( Ribolla Gialla ), Traminer Aromatico ( Gewurztraminer ) Verdiso. Verduzzo Friulano and Vitovska, The main red wine varieties are Cabernet Franc. Cabernet Sauvignon. Carmenère, Franconia ( Blaufränkisch ), Malbech ( Cot ) Merlot. pignolo, Pinot Nero ( Pinot Noir ) Refosco dal Peduncolo Rosso, Refosco Nostrano ( Refosco di Faedis ) Schioppettino and Tazzelenghe, The three IGT areas (IGP) are Alto Livenza, Trevenezie (until 2016 Delle Venezie) and Venezia Giulia. DOC wines account for around 45% of wine production. The 16 DOC / DOCG zones: