The region (also briefly Friuli) with the capital Trieste lies in the extreme northeast Italy, It borders north Austria and to the east Slovenia, The trans-regional landscape Friuli forms the bulk of the region and includes their provinces of Pordenone and Udine, parts of Gorizia (but not Trieste), as well as the province of Belluno and 11 municipalities of the province of Venice in Veneto, The area was always borderland with changing rule under Rome, Byzantium, Venice and Habsburg Empire. 181 BC BC, the Romans founded the colony of Aquiliaia and brought their wine culture. But they already found one of the Celts established viticulture and developed it further, as evidenced by many archaeological finds. Julius Caesar (100-44 BC) then expanded the rule, to him is also the name Julisch (Giulia) back. In 53 BC He founded the city Forum Iulii (the marketplace of Julius) (today Cividale), from which Friuli was built in the course of time.
The Greek author Strabo (63 BC to AD 28) reports that the fertile plain with the city of Aquileia produced wines in abundance, so that the neighboring peoples (Karnier, Japyder, Pannonier and Illyrer) came to the purchase. The Roman author Pliny the Elder (23-79) reports on the famous ancient wine Pucinum which was even delivered to the court of Emperor Augustus (63rd BC to 14 AD). The still existing Aquileia near the Adriatic coast was after Rome the second most important city of the empire, because from here all trade routes were controlled to the north. In the 15th century, the republic dominated the Mediterranean Sea with its galleys Venice the western part of the large area conquered, while separated by the river Judrio eastern part of the today Slovenian town of Gorizia (Goricia) was long under the rule of the Habsburg Empire. This separation has had an impact on viticulture to date, with a west dominated by reds and an east characterized by white grape varieties.
The vineyards cover about 24,000 hectares of vineyards. Until the mid-1960s, about 80% of red wines were still produced in Friuli mainly Merlot in mostly simple quality. With the introduction of modern methods such as refrigerated fermentation, the region has become the Italian white wine center in just one generation. The full-bodied white wines are considered the best in Italy. Thousands of hectares of native varieties were cleared and planted with international varieties. Friuli is the leader in the vine sector, over half of the young vines planted in Italy are from nurseries of the region.
The most important white wines are Bianchetta Trevigiana. Chardonnay. Glera - in the past Prosecco, Glera Lunga Prosecco Lunga, Malvasia (Malvasia Istriana) Malvasia Istarska ), Moscato Giallo ( Muscat Blanc ) Müller-Thurgau. Picolit, Pinot Bianco ( Pinot Blanc ), Pinot Grigio ( Pinot gris ) Ribolla Gialla, Riesling Renano ( Riesling ), Sauvignon ( Sauvignon Blanc ), Friulano or Tai - formerly Tocai Friulano ( Sauvignonasse ), Ribolla ( Ribolla Gialla ), Traminer Aromatico ( Gewurztraminer ) Verdiso. Verduzzo Friulano and Vitovska, The most important red wines are Cabernet Franc. Cabernet Sauvignon. Carmenère, Franconia ( Blaufränkisch ), Malbech ( Cot ) Merlot. pignolo, Pinot Nero ( Pinot Noir ) Refosco dal Peduncolo Rosso, Refosco Nostrano ( Refosco di Faedis ) Schioppettino and Tazzelenghe, The three IGT areas (IGP) are Alto Livenza, Trevenezie (until 2016 Delle Venezie) and Venezia Giulia. Around 45% of the wine production is accounted for by DOC wines. The 16 DOC / DOCG zones: