Physical-mechanical process (including filtration, filtering and filtering) for the separation or cleaning of substances such as liquids or gases using technical filter devices. Different filtration processes are a common process in the winemaking, Already in the antiquity there were with the Egyptians. Sumerians and Romans a technique in which wine was filtered using cloths or similar materials. In the Middle Ages, the pieces of muslin that acted as a filter were used to add flavoring Spices filtered out of the wine. This piece of fabric was referred to as "Manica Hippocratis" (sleeves of Hippocrates).
In today's viticulture, filtration mainly affects grape and young wine, but also for the purpose of air and disinfection water, The purpose of this process is to remove unwanted substances and thus to stabilize or sterilize the grape must or wine. This is usually done in several steps. First, the ones that were created during the pressing process are quite large lees (Pulp) removed from the must (see under degumming and clarify ). Only then is the so-called filter maturity of the wine achieved as a prerequisite for the respective type of filtration. This means that the wine must not be too cloudy. The next step is to remove microorganisms how yeasts and bacteria,
Filters not only hold back those particles that are (as you might assume) larger than the filter pore size. Because that's just one of the effects. Other mechanisms include particle inertia, diffusion effects (thermal movement of particles), electrostatics adsorptive Effect or blocking effect. For this reason, particles that are much smaller than the pore size of the filter are always separated. In any case, filter pore sizes of ≤ 1 µm (millionths of a meter) are required (human hair approx. 40 µm).
Filtration can be carried out several times in different stages of winemaking, especially after Press (Most), after the fermentation as well as immediately before or at the bottling, Usually, several of the methods listed below are carried out in combination. However, filtering always means a more or less strong mechanical load on the wine, and (too high) losses of flavorings or carbonic acid result, so this method should be used with care. With improper or too sharp application, this can lead to filter shock to lead. Many...