Most widely used in viticulture within the large group of pesticides, The name derives from the two Latin terms fungus and caedere. Fungicides are chemical or biological agents that mushrooms or kill their spores, or at least prevent their growth for the time of their effectiveness. They are used in agriculture and thus in viticulture as a plant protection product. The first widely used fungicide was from the 1880s, the so-called Bordeaux mixture against the wrong person mildew, The various species are classified according to their effect in the groups protective (preventive), curative (combative) and eradicative (eradicating, killing) means.
The protective agents are used before the fungal attack and usually act against several types of fungi. They prevent germination of the spores or the penetration of the fungus into the plant tissue. These include all connections with copper and sulfur, Protective agents do not penetrate into the plant tissue (they have no systemic effect) and are washed off, for example, by rain. Therefore, they usually have to be used several times during the growing season. The curative funds are used only after an infection has already occurred. They inhibit the development of mushrooms in their initial stages. The eradicative agents can successfully combat fungal infestation even if the infestation symptoms are already visible.
Relatively new are so-called mesostemic agents. These form an active substance depot on the plant surface, from which supplies are continuously fed into the plant. The result is a particularly high and long duration of action. Mesostemic fungicides include the strobilurins introduced in the late 1990s. In addition, there are also products with combined effect in a wide range. According to the mode of application, a distinction is made between foliar fungicides sprayed or dusted onto these aboveground plant parts and soil fungicides which are introduced into the soil. In viticulture with fungicides, especially the Botrytis (Noble rot), different types of bunch rot, as well as true and false mildew, but also a number of other types of fungi fought (see under Vine enemies in fungal diseases).
in the Organic viticulture and its special forms are as far as possible dispensed with fungicides or at least greatly limited their use. Instead, it is called on Plant strengtheners set, which increase the resistance of the plants against harmful organisms. Some fungicide types can inhibit yeast activity and thus the fermentation and wine quality. Therefore they can not be used any more for a certain period of time before the harvest (see under hydrogen sulfide ). Due to the relatively humid weather, the use of fungicides in Central Europe is very extensive. In Germany, about 10,000 are used annually in agriculture and about 1,400 tonnes in Austria. In the new breed of grape varieties is of great importance resistance laid against fungi; see also under PIWI,