The most commonly used in viticulture within the large group of pesticides, The name derives from the two Latin terms fungus and caedere. Fungicides are chemical or biological agents that mushrooms or kill their spores or at least prevent their growth for the time of their effectiveness. They are used in agriculture and thus also in viticulture as a plant protection product. The first widely used fungicide was from the 1880s, the so-called Bordeaux mixture against the wrong person mildew, The various species are grouped according to their effect into the groups protective (preventive), curative (combating) and eradicative (eradicating, killing) means.
The protective agents are used before the fungal attack and usually act against several types of fungi. They prevent germination of the spores or the penetration of the fungus into the plant tissue. These include all connections with copper and sulfur, Protective agents do not penetrate into the plant tissue (they have no systemic effect) and are washed off, for example, by rain. Therefore, they usually have to be used several times during the vegetation period. The curative funds are used only after an infection has already occurred. They inhibit the development of mushrooms in their initial stages. The eradicative agents can even successfully fight fungal infestation even if the symptoms of the affliction are already visible.
Relatively new are so-called mesostemic agents. These form an active substance depot on the plant surface from which replenishment is continuously fed into the plant. The result is a particularly high and long duration of action. Mesostemic fungicides include the strobilurins introduced in the late 1990s. In addition, there are also products with combined effect in a wide range. According to the mode of application, a distinction is made between foliar fungicides sprayed or dusted on these aboveground plant parts and ground fungicides which are introduced into the soil. In viticulture with fungicides, especially the Botrytis (Noble rot), different types of bunch rot, as well as true and false mildew, but also a number of other types of fungus fought (see under Vine enemies in fungal diseases).
in the Organic viticulture and its special forms are as far as possible dispensed with fungicides or at least greatly limited their use. Instead, it is called on Plant strengtheners set, which increase the resistance of the plants against harmful organisms. Some types of fungicide can inhibit yeast activity and thus the fermentation and wine quality. Therefore, they may not be used any more time before the harvest (see below hydrogen sulfide ). Due to the relatively humid weather, the use of fungicides in Central Europe is very extensive. In Germany, about 10,000 are used annually in agriculture and about 1,400 tonnes in Austria. In the new breed of grape varieties is very important resistance laid against fungi; see also under PIWI,