The white grape variety comes from Hungary. Despite many hypotheses, the etymology of the name is unknown. There are over 130 Synonyms, which testifies to the old age and the widespread use. The main alphabetically grouped by country are Malvasia Verde ( Brazil ); Weißer Landstock, Zapfner, Zopfner ( Germany ); Furmint Blanc, Sauvignon Vert, Tokay ( France ); Furmint Bianco, Furmint Giallo ( Italy ); Moslavac, Moslavac Bijeli, Pošipel, Pošipon, Sipelj, Šipon ( Croatia ); Luttenberger, flour white, Mosler, Moster, Seestock, Seeineinbeere, Weißlaber, Weißlabler, Weißlauber ( Austria ); Som ( Romania ); Šipon ( Slovenia ); Tokaisky (former USSR ); Arany Furmint, Budai Goher, Fehér Furmint, Lazafürtü Furmint, Szigeti, Valtozó Furmint ( Hungary ).
According to last done in 2018 DNA analysis the variety comes from a presumably natural cross between the Romanian Alba Imputotato x Heunisch ( Gouais Blanc ). By the way, the varieties are with the same parents Frâncuşă and Javor Great emerged. According to analyzes carried out in 2008, Furmint is a parent of the Tokaj variety Hárslevelü and surprisingly also the Swiss variety splashers, Despite apparently indicative synonyms or morphological It must not be similar to the varieties Altesse. Grasă de Cotnari. Kéknyelü. Pošip Bijeli. Sauvignonasse (in Italy Friulano, formerly Tocai Friulano) or Žilavka be confused. She was a cross partner in the four new varieties Bussanello. Fubiano. Vega and Zéta,
There are numerous conjectures about the origin. The Hungarian king Stephen II (1101-1131) or his successor Bela II (1110-1141) reportedly brought Italians into the country in the 12th century who brought their favorite vine. According to a second version, Patriarch Bertoldo di Andechs sent cuttings to the Hungarian King Bela IV in the 13th century (1235-1270). According to a third version, the variety was brought by the Venetian baroness Aurora Katharina Formentini (1609-1653) to the wedding with the Hungarian magnate Ádám Batthyány (1609-1659) in the 17th century. The name is also traced back to the city of Formia (Lazio). However, there is an argument against an Italian origin that no genetic relationships between Furmint and Italian varieties (not even Tocai Friulano) could be determined. Several color and somatic occurring in Hungary mutations speak with a high probability of origin Hungary.
The late-ripening vine is particularly susceptible to Botrytis (Noble rot) and both mildews, sensitive to frost but resistant to drought, It produces golden-yellow, extract-rich white wines with high acid and alcohol content as well as aging potential, which are excellent for production noble sweet Wines. The variety is mainly used in the Tokaj-Hegyalja area for the famous Tokaj grown where it occupies 95% of the area. In Hungary the total vineyard area is 4,165 hectares. There are further stocks in Brazil (13 ha), Austria (9 ha), Slovakia for the Slovakian Tokajský (248 ha), Slovenia (651 ha) and Croatia (172 ha). In the worldwide varieties ranking in 2010, it ranked 108th with a total of 5,276 hectares of vineyards.
Source: Wine Grapes / J. Robinson, J. Harding, J. Vouillamoz / Penguin Books Ltd. 2012
Images: Ursula Brühl, Doris Schneider, Julius Kühn Institute (JKI)