The appellation, named after the small town of the same name, is located in the east of the wine-growing region Southwest France, Gaillac is one of the oldest wine regions France, The Romans have practiced viticulture here at least since the 1st century. However, there may have been some before Celts (Gauls) a winegrower. It came to a standstill during the Migration Period and was only abandoned by the Benedictine monks of the Saint-Michel-de-Gaillac monastery. In the 13th century, the Count of Toulouse Raymond VII. Issued a decree for a controlled designation of origin for his wine region. Already in the 12th century the wine was exported to Northern Europe, especially to England, where it was very popular. The Aquitanic poet Auger Galhard (1540-1593) praised long before the invention of the champagne the sparkling wine. Until the mid-20th century, they specialized in sweet white wines, but then rose and red wines began to be produced. The trademark is the rooster with three lilies from the Gaillac coat of arms, which is why the wines used to be called "Vins du Coq".
The vineyards cover around 3,500 hectares of vineyards north of the city of Toulouse in the department Tarn in the valley of the same river. This is just over a third of the 9,000 hectares of vineyards in the department. The area is divided into the lower slopes with loamy-chalky soils, the higher layers of the Cordes plateau on heavily chalky soils on the right bank and the gravel sand zones on the left bank of the Tarn. The Gaillac area has very special climatic conditions. The climate is neither Mediterranean nor Atlantic, but more continental. Summers are hot and dry, with rain mainly between September and April. Another special feature is the warm east wind Autan.
There are a variety of appellations. Under Gaillac 75% dry red and rose wines, as well as white wines are produced. The red wine is made from at least 60% Duras. Fer. Gamay and Syrah, as well as up to 40% Cabernet Sauvignon. Cabernet Franc and Merlot blended. The rosé is produced under similar conditions. The white wine is made from the autochthonous sorts Len de l'El and or Sauvignon Blanc, such as Mauzac Blanc, Mauzac Rosé, Sémillon. Muscadelle and Ondenc blended.
The naturally sweet white wines are marketed under the name Gaillac Doux (the previously used appellations Gaillac Liquoreux and Gaillac Moelleux are no longer permitted). These must be at least 70 g / l residual sugar exhibit. Under the name Gaillac Prèmieres Côtes mainly dry but also sweet white wines from 11 municipalities are produced from designated limestone slopes. The former Gaillac Sec Perlé for slightly sparkling wines was abandoned. For the sparkling wine, some appellations were created using the manufacturing method (see also under Rural method ).
A specialty is the slightly sparkling white and rosé wines produced under the name Gaillac Mousseux Méthode Gaillacoise . The wines go through only one time fermentation, There is also the sweet version Gaillac Mousseux Méthode Gaillacoise Doux with at least 45 g / l residual sugar. Sparkling wines in white and rosé are produced according to the champagne method under the name Gaillac Mousseux Méthode Deuxième Fermentation . Another specialty is the "Vin de Voile" (voile = veil), which is like a Vin Jaune is produced. The name comes from the fine layer of yeast in the wine.
The Gaillac wines are bottled in the special bottle shape "Gaillacoise". Since the 2004 vintage there has been a uniform shape (medium bottle), which is a compromise between the shorter red wine bottle (right) and the slimmer white wine bottle (left). Well-known producers are Domaine des Bouscaillous, Château de Branes, Domaine Jean Cros, Château d'Escabes, Domaine de Labarthe, CV de Labastide-de-Levis, Château Montels, Domaine du Moulin, Domaine de Rieux, Domaine Rotier, Domaine des Terrisses and Domaine de Vayssette.
Map: Von Cyril5555 - Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0 , Link
Coat of arms: Von Syryatsu - Own work, public domain, link
Weinberg: By BerndtF - Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0 , Link
Bottles: By Berndt Fernow - Self-photographed , CC BY-SA 3.0 , Link