The appellation named after the small town of the same name is located in the east of the winegrowing region Southwest France, Gaillac is one of the oldest vineyards France, At least since the 1st century, wine was cultivated here by the Romans. Possibly but there were already under the Celts (Gauls) a viticulture. During the migration of peoples he came to a standstill and was only in the 10th century by the Benedictine monks the monastery of Saint-Michel-de-Gaillac re-established. In the 13th century, the Count of Toulouse Raymond VII issued a decree for a controlled origin designation for his wine area. Already in the 12th century, the wine was exported to northern Europe, especially to England, and enjoyed great popularity there. The Aquarian poet Auger Galhard (1540-1593) praised long before the invention of the champagne the sparkling wine. Until the middle of the 20th century, they specialized in sweet white wines, but then began to produce rosé and red wines. The trademark is the tap with three lilies from the Gaillac coat of arms, so the wines were formerly called "Vins du Coq".
The vineyards cover about 3,500 hectares of vineyards north of the city of Toulouse in the department Tarn in the valley of the Glecihnamigen river. This is just over one third of the 9,000 hectares of vineyards in the Département. The area is divided into the lower slopes with loamy calcareous soils, the higher lying layers of the plateau of Cordes on strongly calcareous soils of the right bank and the gravel sand zones of the left bank of the Tarn. The Gaillac area has very special climatic conditions. The climate is neither Mediterranean nor Atlantic, but more continental. The summers are hot and dry, rain is mainly between September and April. Another special feature is the warm east wind Autan.
There are a variety of appellation names. Under Gaillac , 75% of dry red and rosé wines and white wines are produced. The red wine will be made from at least 60% Duras. Fer. Gamay and Syrah, as well as up to 40% Cabernet Sauvignon. Cabernet Franc and Merlot blended. The rose is produced under similar conditions. The white wine is made from the autochthonous sorts Len de l'El and or Sauvignon Blanc, such as Mauzac Blanc, Mauzac Rosé, Sémillon. Muscadelle and Ondenc blended.
The sweet white wines are marketed under the name Gaillac Doux (the previously used appellation names Gaillac Liquoreux and Gaillac Moelleux are no longer allowed). These must be at least 70 g / l residual sugar exhibit. Under the name Gaillac Prèmieres Côtes mainly dry but also sweet white wines from 11 communities are produced by designated limestone slopes. The former Gaillac Sec Perlé for slightly sparkling wines was abandoned. For foaming wines some appellations were created according to the production method (see also under Méthode rurale ).
A specialty is the slightly foaming white and rosé wines produced under the name Gaillac Mousseux Méthode Gaillacoise . The wines undergo only a one-time fermentation, There is also the sweet version Gaillac Mousseux Méthode Gaillacoise Doux with at least 45 g / l residual sugar. Under the name Gaillac Mousseux Méthode Deuxième Fermentation sparkling wines are produced in white and rosé according to the champagne method. Another specialty is the "vin de voile" (voile = veil), which in the manner of a Vin Jaune is produced. The name comes from the fine yeast layer in the wine.
The Gaillac wines are bottled in the special bottle form "Gaillacoise". Since 2004, there is a uniform shape (medium bottle), which represents a compromise between the shorter red wine (right) and the slimmer white wine bottle (left). Well-known producers are Domaine des Bouscaillous, Château de Branes, Domaine Jean Cros, Château d'Escabes, Domaine de Labarthe, Labastide-de-Levis, Château Montels, Domaine du Moulin, Domaine de Rieux, Domaine Rotier, Domaine des Terrisses and Domaine de Vayssette.
Card: From Cyril5555 - Own Work, CC BY-SA 3.0 , Link
Coat of Arms: From Syryatsu - Own Work, Public domain, Link
Weinberg: By BerndtF - Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0 , Link
Bottles: By Berndt Fernow - Self-photographed , CC BY-SA 3.0 , Link