Named after the small town of the same name, the appellation is located in the east of the winegrowing region Southwest France, Gaillac is one of the oldest vineyards France, At least since the 1st century, wine was cultivated here by the Romans. Possibly but there were already under the Celts (Gauls) a viticulture. During the migration of peoples, it came to a standstill and was only in the 10th century by the Benedictine monks the monastery of Saint-Michel-de-Gaillac re-established. In the 13th century, the Count of Toulouse Raymond VII issued a decree for a controlled origin designation for his wine area. Already in the 12th century, the wine was exported to northern Europe, especially to England, and enjoyed great popularity there.
The Aquarian poet Auger Galhard (1540-1593) praised long before the invention of the champagne the sparkling wine. Until the mid-20th century, they specialized in sweet white wines, but then began to produce rosé and red wines. The trademark is the rooster from the Gaillac coat of arms, so the wines were formerly called "Vins du Coq".
The vineyards cover about 3,500 hectares of vineyards north of the city of Toulouse in the Tarn department in the valley of the Glecihnamigen river. This is just over one third of the 9,000 hectares of vineyards in the Département. The area is divided into the lower slopes with loamy calcareous soils, the higher lying layers of the plateau of Cordes on strongly calcareous soils of the right bank and the gravel sand zones of the left bank of the Tarn. There are a variety of appellation names. Under Gaillac , 75% of dry red and rosé wines and white wines are produced. The red wine will be made from at least 60% Duras. Fer. Gamay and Syrah, as well as up to 40% Cabernet Sauvignon. Cabernet Franc and Merlot blended. The rosé has similar conditions.
The white wine is made from the autochthonous sorts Len de l'El and or Sauvignon Blanc, as Mauzac Blanc, Mauzac Rosé, Sémillon. Muscadelle and Ondenc blended. The sweet white wines are marketed under the name Gaillac Doux (the appellations Gaillac Liquoreux and Gaillac Moelleux formerly used for this are no longer permitted). These must have at least 70 g / l of residual sugar. Under the name Gaillac Prèmieres Côtes mainly dry but also sweet white wines from 11 communities are produced by designated limestone slopes.
The former Gaillac Sec Perlé for slightly sparkling wines was abandoned. For foaming wines some appellations were created according to the production method (see under after the Méthode rurale ). A specialty is the Gaillac Mousseux Méthode Gaillacoise produced slightly frothy wines in white and rosé. These undergo only a single fermentation. There is also the sweet version Gaillac Mousseux Méthode Gaillacoise Doux with at least 45 g / l residual sugar. Under Gaillac Mousseux Méthode Deuxième Fermentation sparkling wines are produced in white and rosé according to the champagne method. Another specialty is the "Vin de Voile" (voile = veil), which is one of a kind Vin Jaune is produced. The name comes from the fine yeast layer in the wine.
Well-known producers are Domaine des Bouscaillous, Château de Branes, Domaine Jean Cros, Château d'Escabes, Domaine de Labarthe, Labastide-de-Levis, Château Montels, Domaine du Moulin, Domaine de Rieux, Domaine Rotier, Domaine des Terrisses and Domaine de Vayssette.