Autonomous region or historical landscape Spain with about 30,000 km² in the northwest of the Iberian Peninsula, which stretches along the Atlantic coast. In the south, the region borders Portugal and to the east this concludes Basque country on. Galicia counts as "green Spain". By high mountains of Castile and Leon Separately, an isolated development influenced by Portugal took place. Native Americans were in the west Celts (Galician = from Gauls) and in the east the Basques. In the 5th century, the Germanic Sweben invaded and in 585 the Visigoths conquered it. After the liberation from the rule of the Moors in the 8th century it belonged first to the Kingdom of Asturias, later to León and Castile. At the time of the autonomous kingdom of Asturias, Santiago de Compostela (the end of the famous pilgrimage route) was the capital.
The mountainous country is intersected by countless rivers with many valleys. For this reason, it is also referred to as the "land of the 1,000 rivers". These include Río Anllóns, Río Arnoia, Río Eo, Río Eume, Río Limoa, Río Miño, Río Sil and Río Tambre. The Atlantic influenced climate is characterized by mild winters and moderately warm summers with high rainfall. The area is one of the wettest in Spain. In connection with the many sunny days, it is therefore ideal for viticulture.
The winemaking tradition goes back to the Romans. The predominant white wine variety Albariño ( Alvarinho ) is allegedly already in the 12th century by the Cistercian monks of the monastery of Armenteira. In the 14th century, wine was exported to many European countries. In the 19th century, Galicia was heavily influenced by the Phylloxera disaster strong affected. The world wars and an economic crisis had a negative impact on viticulture, which only started to recover slowly after joining the EU in 1986.
The vineyards cover about 10,000 hectares of vineyards on mineral rich slate weathering and granite soils. They are located mainly in the south on the Portuguese border, preferably near the many rivers. Significant for the region are the extremely high yield, The white wines occupy two-thirds of the vineyard, the most important are Albariño ( Alvarinho ) Godello, Loureira ( Loureiro ), Treixadura ( Trajadura ) and Palomino, The most important red wines are Mencia. Garnacha Tinta, Tintorera ( Alicante Henri Bouschet ) and Bastardo ( Graciano ). The DO areas (quality wines) are Monterrei. Rías Baixas. Ribeira Sacra. Ribeiro and valdeorras, The IGP areas (Landweine) are Betanzos, Ribeiras do Morazzo and Valle de Mino-Ourense.