The red variety comes from France, The full name is due to its almost white pulp Gamay Noir à Jus Blanc to distinguish them from red meat Gamay varieties. There are around 150 Synonyms Some of them are Beaujolais, Bourguignon Noir, Caracairone, Gamai, Gamay Chatillon, Gamay Beaujolais, Gamay Charmont, Gamay d'Arcenant, Gamay d'Auvergne, Gamay de la Dole, Gamay de Liverdun, Gamay de Saint-Romain, Gamay de Sainte -Foix, Gamay de Toul, Gamay de Vaux, Gamay d'Orleans, Gamay du Gâtinais, Gamay Labronde, Gamay Noir, Gamay Ovoïde, Gamay Précoce, Gamé, Gammé, Grosse Dôle, Liverdun Grand, Lyonnais, Melon Noir, Petit Bourguignon, Petit Gamay, Plant Robert (independent clone ), Black melon grape. It may, despite seemingly suggestive synonyms or morphological Similarities do not match the varieties Abouriou. Avana. Blaufränkisch. Gascon. Gouget Noir. Grolleau Noir. Pinot Noir. Troyen or valdiguié be confused.
According to an unverifiable hypothesis, it is allegedly already under the Roman emperor Probus (232-282) came from Dalmatia to France. Probably she comes from the Burgundy and may be close to the community Gamay Saint-Aubin in the Côte d'Or named. The very old variety was first mentioned in 1395 in a banner of Duke Philip II the Bold (1342-1404). It speaks of a very bad sort of Gaamez, from which lush quantities of wine spring, which is terribly bitter and which afflict people with serious illnesses. Therefore, it was ordered to destroy the vines throughout the country or no longer to plant. This official ban was affirmed on several occasions until the middle of the 18th century and has until recently established the rather poor reputation of this grape variety.
By cooperation of Dr. med. Carole P. Meredith and JE Bowers (University of California), and Jean-Michel Boursiquot (Montpellier) DNA analysis in 1999 the descent of the variety was clarified. It is one of the many natural crossings between the two leading varieties Pinot x Gouais blanc (Heunisch). The variety was crossing partner in the new breeds Aris. AZ 15477. Florental. Galotta. Gamaret. Garanoir. Mara and Oberlin Noir, as well as parent of Meslier Noir, There are a number of other grape varieties with name Gamay. There are no genetic relationships except for four exceptions:
The early ripening vine is relatively sensitive and prone to Botrytis. grape. Black spots disease and brushwood disease, It provides refreshing, alcohol-rich and tanninarme red wines with aromas of raspberries and cherries. These should generally be enjoyed rather young. The means Macération carbonique as extremely early drinking Beaujolais Nouveau Wines produced are often pale and thin. On the other hand, very good quality developed in oak barrels and in the Beaujolais crus also have a certain longevity.
The variety is widespread in France and in almost all regions except the Bordeaux. Alsace and Corsica admitted in many appellations. in the Beaujolais occupies about 20,000 hectares, about 90% of the vineyard. The production of this red wine is tailored to the varietal characteristics, which is why the vine is aptly called the "Beaujolais grape". in the Burgundy in the blend with the Pinot Noir, it gives the Passe-Tout-Grain (analogous Mixed set ). At the Loire it is represented by over 5,000 hectares and approximately the same quantity in the rest of France. The French acreage totaled 29,698 hectares.
In the Switzerland is Gamay with 1,521 hectares the third most common variety. Here she is with the Pinot Noir to the well-known brand wine Dole blended. A special culture with a special one clone exists in the canton Vaud under the name of Plant Robert, Other stocks existed in European countries England (1 ha), Italy (122 ha), Luxembourg (98 ha), Portugal (1), Turkey (206 ha) and Hungary (3 ha).
Overseas, there are smaller acreages in Argentina (1 ha), Brazil (16 ha), Chile (1), Canada (220 ha), New Zealand (12 ha), South Africa (19 ha) and Uruguay (9 ha), as well as in the US states California. Michigan. new York. Oregon and Texas, The variety occupied in 2010 a total of 31,927 hectares of vineyards with declining tendency (ten years earlier, there were 37,796). She reached it in the worldwide varieties ranking the rank 32.
Source: Wine Grapes / J. Robinson, J. Harding, J. Vouillamoz / Penguin Books Ltd. 2012
Pictures: Ursula Bruehl, Doris Schneider, Julius Kühn Institute (JKI)