The grape variety group is probably from Spain. The different colors game types are grown under numerous names / synonyms around the world. The best known of these are Garnacha and Garnatxa in Spain, Grenache in France, as well as Cannonau (Sardinia), Granaxia and Tai Rosso or earlier Tocai Rosso (Veneto) in Italy, The exact origin is in the region Aragon in the northeast of Spain suspects what of the French ampelographers Pierre Galet (* 1921), Victor Vermorel (1848-1927), Pierre Viala (1859-1936) and Victor Pulliat (1827-1896) was justified accordingly. Italian experts such as Gianni Lovicu, however, have recently claimed their origin in Sardinia, where the variety has also been cultivated for many centuries. Both versions are possible or plausible because the island of Sardinia in the period 1479-1720 was a Spanish colony and in some other varieties reciprocal relations between Sardinia and Spain are given.
The variety was first mentioned probably in 1513 by the Spanish agronomist Gabriel Alonso de Herrera (1470-1539), who describes a blackberry variety from Madrid under the name Aragones still used today. In Sardinia in 1549 in Cagliari the mention of a variety called Canonat. In France she was first under Roussillon known. In this region it was introduced towards the end of the 18th century and then from here to the Provence and other areas spread. In northern Italy, she was known as Tocai Rosso until the 1950s, where she did so much later.
The Italian origin is justified, among other things, that the term "Garnacha" is linguistically derived from the Italian "Vernaccia" and an ancient occurring in Sardinia and already appreciated in the Middle Ages grape variety means yes Vernaccia di Oristano, However, according to DNA analysis no genetic links between Vernaccia and Garnacha. So far you could not do any DNA analysis Parent-offspring relationships for Garnacha prove. However, there is between Garnacha and some other Spanish varieties such as Airén. alarije and Verdejo genetic relations, which in turn makes the assumption of a Spanish origin probable.
Anyway, by any means are colored (berries) and also somatic (leaves) mutations Over time, the various varieties of the variety emerged. Which of these was the starting point can not be said with absolute certainty. But it is to be assumed that this (as for example with the Pinot Group ) was the dark-berry variety. There are four varieties, but also some independent varieties:
Various Garnacha varieties or varieties were a parent among other things, probably for natural crosses and new breeds Alicante Henri Bouschet. Aranel. Caladoc. Carnelian. Centurion. Chenanson. Emerald Riesling. Ganson. Gramon. Marselan. Monerac. Portan and Symphony,
Source: Wine Grapes / J. Robinson, J. Harding, J. Vouillamoz / Penguin Books Ltd. 2012
Pictures: Ursula Bruehl, Doris Schneider, Julius Kühn Institute (JKI)