The grape variety group probably comes from Spain. The different colors game types are grown under numerous names / synonyms around the world. The best known are Garnacha and Garnatxa in Spain, Grenache in France, as well as Cannonau (Sardinia), Granaxia and Tai Rosso or formerly Tocai Rosso (Veneto) in Italy, The exact origin is in the region Aragon in the northeast of Spain suspected what the French ampelographers Pierre Galet (1921-2019), Victor Vermorel (1848-1927), Pierre Viala (1859-1936) and Victor Pulliat (1827-1896) was justified accordingly. However, Italian experts such as Gianni Lovicu, among others, are now claiming their origin in Sardinia, where the variety has also been cultivated for many centuries. Both versions are possible or plausible because the island of Sardinia was a Spanish colony between 1479 and 1720 and there are also mutual relationships between Sardinia and Spain for some other varieties.
The variety was probably first discovered in 1513 by the Spanish agronomist Gabriel Alonso de Herrera (1470-1539) mentioned, who describes a black berry variety from Madrid under the name Aragones still used today. In Sardinia, a variety called Canonat was mentioned in Cagliari in 1549. In France it was first under Roussillon known. It was introduced in this region towards the end of the 18th century and then from here into the Provence and other areas. In northern Italy, it only became known as Tocai Rosso in the 1950s, so it only got there much later.
The Italian origin is justified, among other things, by the fact that the term “Garnacha” is supposed to be linguistically derived from the Italian “Vernaccia” and that an ancient grape variety that occurs in Sardinia and is already highly valued in the Middle Ages is called yes Vernaccia di Oristano, However, according to DNA analysis no genetic connections between Vernaccia and Garnacha. So far, one has not been able to use DNA analysis Parent-offspring relationships to prove for Garnacha. However, there is between Garnacha and some other Spanish varieties such as Airén. alarije and Verdejo genetic relationships, which in turn suggests that Spanish origin is likely.
Anyway, definitely by colored (berries) and also somatic (leaves) mutations the different varieties of the variety emerged over time. It cannot be said with absolute certainty which of these was the starting point. However, it can be assumed that this (as for example with the Pinot Group ) was the dark berry variety. There are four types of game, but also some independent varieties:
Different Garnacha varieties and varieties were a parent for presumably natural crosses as well as new varieties Alicante Henri Bouschet. Aranel. Caladoc. Carnelian. Centurion. Chenanson. Emerald Riesling. Ganson. Gramon. Marselan. Monerac. Portan and Symphony,
Source: Wine Grapes / J. Robinson, J. Harding, J. Vouillamoz / Penguin Books Ltd. 2012
Images: Ursula Brühl, Doris Schneider, Julius Kühn Institute (JKI)