Term (also gene manipulation) for artificial methods of biotechnology that enable targeted interventions in the genetic material (genome) and thus in the biochemical control processes of living beings. The product is a newly composed (recombinant) DNA that can be used to produce genetically modified organisms.
The technology thus includes the modification and reassembly of DNA sequences in a test tube, but also in living organisms such as plants, and the artificial introduction of DNA into living organisms. In viniculture too, some of these methods are used in a very targeted manner in vine breeding. This is by no means entirely new, because the Italian pomologist Alberto Pirovano (1884-1973) was the first to join vines in 1912 UV light irradiated to consciously bring about changes in the cell material.
These techniques are designed to varieties properties not yet available such as resistance against fungal diseases introduced into the genome and thus resistant "new" varieties are generated. In this regard there is the international project IGGP (International Grape Genome Program). In contrast to that stands the new breed where through naturally intersections desired characteristics of the parents should appear in the new variety. There are various forms of genetic engineering, some of which are highly controversial, partly due to (yet) unforeseeable effects on the environment, and are largely prohibited within the EU. See also on this topic under the keywords DNA. molecular Genetics and breeding,