Designation (also genetic engineering) for artificial methods of biotechnology, which enable targeted interventions in the genetic material (genome) and thus in the biochemical control processes of living things. The product is a recompounded (recombinant) DNA with which genetically modified organisms can be produced.
The technique thus includes the modification and recomposition of DNA sequences in the test tube, but also in living organisms, especially plants, and the artificial introduction of DNA into living organisms. In viticulture, too, some of these methods are used quite selectively in vine growing. This is by no means brand new, because the Italian Pomologe Alberto Pirovano (1884-1973) was the first to participate in grapevines as early as 1912 UV light irradiated to deliberately cause changes in the cell material.
By these techniques should be included varieties previously non-existent properties such as resistance against fungal diseases introduced into the genetic material and thus resistant "new" varieties are generated. In this regard, there is the international project IGGP (International Grape Genome Program). In contrast, the stands new breed where going on in a natural way intersections desired characteristics of the parents in the new variety should appear. There are various forms of genetic engineering, some of which are highly controversial and largely banned within the EU due to their (as yet) unpredictable effects on the environment. See also the keywords under this topic DNA. molecular Genetics and breeding,