Science of the structure, composition and structure of the earth's crust (earth = Grch. Ge), its physical properties and its development history as well as the processes that shape it. The term was first used in 1778 by the Swiss meteorologist Jean-André Deluc (1727-1817); previously geognosy was common. The earth's crust consists of three different rock formations. These are crystalline or solidification rocks, sedimentary or layered rocks and metamorphic or transformed rocks.
These are caused by cooling and solidification. The deep rocks (also called Plutonite) are formed when rising magma slowly cools long before reaching the surface of the earth and mineralized in large crystals. The most common deep crystalline rocks are granite, mica schist and gneiss. When molten magma cools closer to the surface or in the vent of an extinct volcano, it crystallizes in fine and fine crystals due to the faster cooling processes, and hard, dense solidification stones such as basalt or obsidian form. In the case of effusion rocks (volcanic rocks), liquid magma eruptively emerges as lava on the surface of the earth to cool off in water or in the air. Gas-filled tufa rocks result from the eruption ash deposit, while the porous solidified lava flows weather to fertile lava floors.
These rock materials were created from washed-down weathering products such as sand, mud, clay, humus and other fine particles of suspended matter that were transported into the sea with the rivers, together with dead ones seaweed and plankton sank to the bottom of the sea and deposited on the bottom of the oceans. Sedimentary rocks are the only rocks that can contain fossils (evidence of past life). Due to the increasing pressure of the sediment layers, which are constantly forming above them, as well as chemical processes, these sediments were pressed into solid rock. Layers of sand became sandstone, layers of clay became slate, and deposits from plants and animals (e.g. shells, corals, snails) became chalk and limestone.
These are pristine crystalline rocks or sedimentary rocks that have been converted to other rock types over millions of years by extremely high pressure and high temperatures deep in the earth's crust. The best known of these are gneiss (from crystalline or sedimentary rock), marble (from limestone), slate (from clay slate or clay) and quartzite (from sandstone).
Rocks are exposed to physical and chemical weathering processes, and ultimately all rock crumbles to dust. In dependence of climate and water balance, the different types of soil developed over millions of years. This is important for viticulture, because the starting rock and the climate largely determine the soil type, The floor structure, the water Resources (such as. Water storage capacity and water discharge ) and especially the nutrient availability directly influence the type of vegetation and thus also the vitality and growth of the vine, The color of the floor also influences the microclimate due to the influence on the sun's radiation and the heat absorption.
In interaction with the climate, exposition (Direction of the sun's rays) and Tilt respectively. hillside the geological conditions of the location play a major role in determining the wine quality. And it is part of the artistry of the winemaker, by choosing the right one vine and document, as well as through suitable measures at the Weingarten Care on his terroir to create the best wines. The criteria for the suitability of an area for viticulture are called Weinbauwürdigkeit, See also under soil type,