The Near Eastern State (formerly Grusinien) east of the Black Sea in Transcaucasia is one of the oldest wine-growing countries. It is also called the origin of the cultivated grapevine However, according to the most recent research in Turkey today, it is suspected in southeastern Anatolia (arrow). After Bible is on the mountain Ararat landed after the Flood Noah. According to one hypothesis, the 5,000 - year - old earthenware jars found near the town of Wani in Imeretia are said to have cores of Rkatsiteli vine have included. Already 7,000 year old grape seeds cultivated vines indicate a selection for the breeding better grape varieties. The archeology provided evidence that viticulture from its earliest days enjoyed great importance and was an integral part of Georgian culture. In the Museum of the capital Tbilisi (Tbilisi) is a silver-covered, short piece of vine wood, which was found in Trialeti in the south and whose age of 3.000 BC. Was determined. numerous Rebmesser, Stoneware, mills, clay and metal vessels and jewelry in the form of grapes and vine leaves from the period between 3000 and 2000 BC. Were excavated in Mukheta, Trialeti and Pitsunda and in the Alazani Valley.
Rich ornaments with fruit-bearing vines can be found on the walls of temples in the cities of Samtavisi, Ikalto, Gelati, Nikortsminda, Vardzia and Zarmza. In a poem by the Greek scholar Apollonius of Rhodes (3rd century BC), the librarian of the famous library in Alexandria, it says in his work "Argonautica" that the Argonauts (heroes of Greek mythology) arrive in the capital Colchis would have seen vines grazing at the entrance of the royal palace and a fountain with wine in the shade of the trees. Georgian legends testify to the love of grapevine. Georgia took over Christianity in the fourth century. The first cross was allegedly made from vines to demonstrate Christian religion and vine as the country's holiest goods. For many centuries, viticulture in Georgia had the greatest economic importance and finally reached an absolute peak in the Middle Ages.
After the Second World War, Georgia became an important supplier of wine in the USSR, which was set to mass. Until 1985, the vineyards increased to 125,000 hectares. Then there was the anti-alcohol campaign under Mikhail Gorbachev (* 1931) a strong setback, because it was cleared 40,000 hectares of vineyards and replaced by melons. At the time of independence from 1991, 75% of production was lost Russia exported. In 2006, however, there was an import ban (by the way, too Moldovan Crying) from Russia with the inedibleness of Georgian wines by contamination with pesticides and pollutants. Georgia saw a politically motivated crackdown on the new pro-Western government. The Georgian wine industry was thereby massively impaired. The embargo was lifted at the end of 2011.
In 2012, the vineyard area was 48,000 hectares with a decreasing trend (in 2000 it was 76,000 hectares). Of these, only 830,000 hectoliters of wine were produced (see also under Wine production volumes ). About two thirds are planted with red wine and one third with white wine varieties. Wild vines are still very common in Georgia; here is the species Vitis vinifera sylvestris still represented today. There are over 500 autochthonous Grape varieties, however, only about 10% of them are approved for viticulture. A nursery there is in Sakar. The Blend 2010:
|Tsolikouri||White||Melquos Tsolikouri, Zolikouri||7903|
|Mtsvane Kakhuri||White||Dedali Mtsvane||319|
|Goruli Mtsvane||White||Kvishkhuri, Tetrpotola||287|
|Tsulukidzis Tetra||White||Rachuli Tetra||195|
|Otskhanuri Sapere||red||Argvetuli Sapere||6|
|Asuretuli Shavi||red||Asuretuli, sound grape||?|
|Dzvelshavi Obchuri||red||Dzvelchavi Obtchouri, Dzvelchavi Obtshinsky||?|
|Kapistoni Tetri||White||Kapistona, Kapistoni||?|
|Kharistvala Kolkhuri||red||Charistvala, Dodrelyabi||?|
|Kharistvala Meskhuri||White||Meskhuri Kharistvala||?|
Under the wind-protecting influence of the towering Caucasus, there are ideal climatic conditions for viticulture. However, the country is characterized by a large variety of soils and climatic conditions. The climate is between temperate and subtropical. There are five winegrowing regions. The most important as the easternmost part of Georgia is Kakheti with the capital Telavi. The vineyards are located mostly on the slopes of the Alazani and Iori Rivers. Here is the home of the traditional Cachetian winemaking with earthenware jars (Kvevris) buried in the ground. The climate is temperate, the average annual rainfall is between 400 and 800 mm. There are calcareous soils. Here grow 70% of the grapes for wine and distillates. Kachetien is divided into three growing areas and over 25 sub-areas or appellations, these are for example Achascheni, Akhmeta, Gurdzhaani, Kindzmarauli, Kvareli, Manavi, Mukuzani. Napareuli, Sagaredzho, Signagi and Tsinandali,
The region of Kartli is located in the center of the country in the Kura Valley and encloses the lowlands Gori and Mukhran. Here, the base wines for sparkling wine and spirits are produced, which make up 15% of Georgian production. There is moderate climate, the summers are hot and dry. Due to low rainfall with an average of 350 to 500 mm must be an artificial irrigation respectively. Here lies the capital Tbilisi with huge sparkling wine cellars and distilleries. Founded in 1897, the oldest winery has a unique collection of approximately 1,600 wines (around 150,000 bottles), including very old foreign products of very old vintages. For example cognac from 1811, Malaga from 1820, Marsala and Madeira from 1822, sherry from 1848 and Tokaj from 1846.
The region of Imeretia is located in western Georgia in the valleys of the rivers Rioni, Kvirila and others on alluvial soils. Again, there is a traditional winemaking in pitchers, similar to the Cachetic method, The Racha-Letchchumi region lies north of Imeretia on the banks of the Rioni and Tskhenistskali Rivers. Moderate amounts of precipitation, southern slopes and a number of indigenous grape varieties yield grapes with high sugar content. The subarea Chwantschkara is known for the favorite wine by Josef Stalin (1878-1953). And the fifth region includes the western landscapes of Abkhazia , Adjara , Gurien and Mingrelia . Sweet wines are mainly produced here in the subtropical climate that prevails here.
Georgia is best known for its red wines, considered the best in the Union during the USSR era. It also produces many fortified wines, sparkling wines and sweet wines, as well as excellent distillates (wine, Chacha = pomace). At the Yalta Conference in February 1945, Josef Stalin (1878-1953) surprised Winston Churchill (1874-1965) with the quality of the "Grusinian Cognac" (Grusinia is the Russian name). Well-known producers are Aia, Bagrationi, Chetsuriani, Georgia Wine & Spirits, Khareba, Manavi Wine Cellar, Samkharadze & Co. Ltd., Samtrest, Sarajevich & Eniseli, Schuchmann, Taro Ltd., Tbilvino, Telavi Wine Cellar. Teliani Valley, Tibaneli, Tsinandali (historical winery, today museum), Vasiani, Vazi +, Wine Company Shumi,