The white grape probably comes from France. Around 180 Synonyms testify to the high age and wide distribution of the vine in Europe. The most important alphabetically grouped by country are Bauernweinbeer, Bettschisser, Borzenauer, Branestraube, Brown, Brown Grape, Burgergger, Burger, Dick White, Dickwiss, Frankenthaler, Coarse, Coarse Acid, Coarse Wine, Grobweisser, Hensch, Heunisch, Heinisch, Heinsch, Hensch, Hentschler , Heunscher, Heunschler, Hinschen, Hintsch, Hunnentraube, Hunsch, Hunsch, Hunschrebe, Huntsch, Hynsch, Hyntsch, Kleinberger, Laxier grape, flour white, Quadler, shit grape, Thalburger, Thalburger Grünling, Weiß Zapfner, Weißgrobe, Weißstock, Wippacher ( Germany and or Austria ); Blanc de Serres, Bon Blanc, Bouillan, Bouillaud, Bouilleaud, Enfariné Blanc, Foirard, Gauche Blanc, Goe, Goet, Goez, Goix, Goth, Gouche, Gouche Blanche, Gouest Sauge, Gouet Blanc, Gouette, Gouget Blanc, Goys, Gros Blanc, Gueuche Blanc, Lisoera, Lombard Blanc, Moreau Blanc, Mouillet, Petit Gouge, Plant de Séchex, Plant Madame, President, Provereau Blanc, Verdet, Verdin Blanc, Vionnier ( France ); Blanció, Liseiret, Preveiral ( Italy ); Belina, Belina Drobna, Krapinska Belina, Pikanina Bijela ( Croatia ); Gigante Branco ( Portugal ); Gouais Jaune, Gwäss ( Switzerland ); Hajnos ( Hungary ).
Despite seemingly indicative synonyms or morphological She may not share similarities with the varieties Orleans (Hartheunisch) or Ranfol be confused. The numerous grape varieties with name part "Heunisch" are not all related. Most of them have no meaning and are only in vineyards for historical reasons (eg Geilweilerhof and Domaine de Vassal ). The variety Gouais Blanc (France) is genetically identical to Weißer Heunisch (Germany), although the development has been different.
Many of the synonyms mentioned above have been used in part "criss-cross" for several types of Heunisch. The German name Heunisch comes from the early Middle Ages and was allegedly first mentioned in the 11th century with "hunisce druben". He associates with the Huns and that they should have brought them to Europe. However, this hypothesis is difficult to prove. For many centuries, the terms "Heunisch" (for "coarse") and " Frankish "(For" fine ") the only wine or quality designations and have not referred to a particular variety. A reliable mention was made in 1546 in the famous "Kreutzer book" of Jerome buck (1498-1554: "The big, fat (thick) Hynian grapes, which, for the sake of their rapid fermentation, are given by a few shit grapes." The varieties of the Heunisch group:
There are many hypotheses about the genesis of the French name. The most likely assumes an eponymous community, with the following are eligible and named: Gouaix (Seine-et-Marne), Gouais -les-Saint-Bris (Yonne), Gouex (Vienne) or Goix (Nièvre). All four départements are located in the central north of France. Therefore, the most probable origin thesis assumes that the variety originated here and then spread throughout Europe. This was already the case in 1903 by the ampelographer Adrien Berget who had been intensively involved in the study of French vines. A second hypothesis derives the name of "gou", a derogatory dialect term for the simple quality of the wines.
The hypothesis that they are emperors Probus (232-282) was planted in Dalmatia and spread from there, is due to lack of offspring in Croatia unlikely. Further hypotheses take an origin in Eastern Europe ( Hungary ) or Georgia or Caucasus. The fact is that Gouais Blanc or Heunisch are among the most important ones leading varieties counts. The variety has its genes in numerous natural intersections passed. The Ampelographer Thierry Lacombe has in the Rebsortiment Domaine de Vassal in Montpellier determined by extensive DNA analyzes over 100 direct descendants. This has given the variety the nickname "Casanova of Grapes". Around 80 of them were created on French soil, which also speaks for the French origin. The rest comes from Bulgaria, Germany, Georgia, Greece, Moldova, Austria, Switzerland, Serbia, Slovenia, the Czech Republic and Hungary. Some of the numerous offspring are:
By far the most common crossing partners were Pinot varieties (Blanc, Gris or Noir), with which more than 30 other offspring have emerged. See a list below Pinot,
The medium maturing, very productive vine is resistant to frost but prone to Botrytis, The big grapes and juicy berries made her very popular as Esstraube. Due to the digestive or laxative effect, it was heartily referred to as Bettschisser, Laxiertraube (lax = facilitate) or shit grape. It produces simple, acidic white wines with aromas of green apples and pears. The famous mystic Hildegard von Bingen (1098-1179) wrote as early as the 12th century, "that the Franconian and strong wine causes the blood to rise and must therefore be mixed with water, while the Hunnic and naturally watery wine is not necessary" . Highly valued for its abundance of yield, the vine reliably filled the barrels and is therefore considered "historic mass support ".
The variety was already widespread under countless names in the early Middle Ages. Their occurrence is from east to west in Czech Republic (Bohemia, Moravia), Hungary. Slovenia. Croatia. Austria. Italy (South-Tirol), Switzerland (where she is in Wallis mentioned under "Gewess" in 1540), Germany and France (especially in the northeast) documented documentary. There she was often together with Pinot and Traminer (Savagnin Blanc) grown. That is also the reason for the numerous descendants of these varieties. Due to the poor wine quality, Gouais Blanc and Elbling were later cleared and replaced with Franconian varieties.
An extraordinary find in 2003 caused a sensation among experts. The two biologists Andreas Young and dr. Erika Dettweiler (Maul) from the Institute Geilweilerhof (Palatinate) discovered in the municipalities Handschuhsheim, Dossenheim, Rohrbach and Leimen (Baden) four historic to 400 years old vineyards with a wealth of extremely rare grape varieties. Among them was in the Leimener Gewann "horror" the White Heunisch. The winery Georg Breuer in the Rheingau planted the variety in small quantities and made a wine from it. Other small stocks exist in France (Savoie), in Switzerland with the resulting pressed Gwäss, as well as in Italy (Piedmont) under the names Liseiret and Preveiral. In Austria There are a few sticks in the vine museum of Franz Leth (Wagram, Lower Austria).
Sources: Wine Grapes / J. Robinson, J. Harding, J. Vouillamoz / Penguin Books Ltd. 2012
Dr. Erika Maul - Julius Kühn-Institute (Institute for Vine Breeding Geilweilerhof / Pfalz)
Grapes and leaves: Ursula Bruehl, Doris Schneider, Julius Kühn Institute (JKI)