The white grape variety comes from France or Germany. Around 180 Synonyms testify to the high age and wide distribution of the vine in Europe. The most important are alphabetically grouped by country are Bauernweinbeer, Bedschisser, Branearube, Brown, Brown Grape, Burgergger, Burger, Dickwhite, Dickwiss, Frankenthaler, Yellow Heunisch, Coarse, Coarse, Coarsely Acid, Grobheunisch, Coarse Wine, Coarse White, Coarse Whites, Hensch, Heunisch, Heinisch, Heinsch, Hensch, Hentschler, Heunscher, Heunschler, Hinschen, Hintsch, Hunnentraube, Hunsch, Hunsch, Hunschrebe, Huntsch, Hynsch, Hyntsch, Kleinberger, Laxier Grape, Flourwhite, Quadler, Shit Grape, White Heunisch, White Zapfner, White Coarse, Whitebeam, Wippacher ( Germany and or Austria ); Bon Blanc, Bouillan, Bouillaud, Bouilleaud, Enfariné Blanc, Foirard, Gauche Blanc, Goe, Goet, Goez, Goix, Goet, Gouche, Gouche Blanche, Gouet Blanc, Gouette, Gouget Blanc, Goys, Gros Blanc, Gueuche Blanc, Liseiret, Lombard Blanc, Moreau Blanc, Mouillet, Petit Gouge, Plant de Séchex, Plant Madame, President, Provereau Blanc, Verdet, Verdin Blanc, Vionnier ( France ); Blanció, Preveiral ( Italy ); Belina, Belina Drobna, Krapinska Belina, Wippacher ( Croatia ); Gigante Branco ( Portugal ); Gouais Jaune, Gwäss ( Switzerland ); Hajnos ( Hungary ).
There are several grape varieties called Heunisch, but not all are related. The Ursorteorte is white (yellow) Heunisch or Gouais Blanc . Genetically identical mutations are Tricolor Heunisch (Tribarvna Belina, Vexiertraube) for color change during ripening of bronze-on pale red to white, red-striped Heunisch (Pekasore, Gros Corinthe) for red-green striped berries and seeds Loser Heunisch (Absenger, aspirant Heunisch Seedless, Virgin grape, Small Corinthe). These three varieties differ in the grape quality. The two varieties Rosa Heunisch and Schwarzer Heunisch (Blue Tokay, Debela Crnina, Gouais Noir, Hohmann, Schwarzhinsch) are according to DNA analysis direct descendants. Furthermore, there are the unrelated varieties Red Heunisch and Blue Heunisch, However, the assignment of synonyms should not be viewed absolutely because they were used "criss-cross". All varieties or varieties are no longer relevant today and are only for historical reasons in vineyards (eg. Geilweilerhof and Domaine de Vassal ).
The variety Gouais Blanc (France) is genetically identical to Weißer Heunisch (Germany), although the development in the "home countries" has been somewhat different. The German name Heunisch comes from the early Middle Ages and was allegedly first mentioned in the 11th century with "hunisce druben". He associates with the Huns and that they should have brought them to Europe. However, this hypothesis is not certain or difficult to prove. For many centuries, the terms "Heunisch" (for "coarse") and " Frankish "(For" fine ") the only wine or quality designations and have not referred to a particular variety. A reliable mention of the variety was made in 1546 in the famous "Kreutzer book" of the botanist Hieronymus buck (1498-1554: "The big, fat (thick) Hynian grapes, which, for the sake of their quick spice, are given by a number of shit grapes" .
There are many hypotheses about the genesis of the French name. The most likely assumes an eponymous community, with the following are eligible and named: Gouaix (Seine et Marne), Gouais -les-Saint-Bris (Yonne), Gouex (Vienne) or Goix (Nièvre). All four départements are located in the central north of France. Therefore, the most probable origin thesis assumes that the variety originated here and then spread throughout Europe. This was already the case in 1903 by the ampelographer Adrien Berget who had been intensively involved in the study of French vines. A second hypothesis derives the name of "gou", a derogatory dialect term for the simple quality of the wines.
The hypothesis that they are emperors Probus (232-282) was planted in Dalmatia and spread from there, is due to lack of offspring in Croatia unlikely. Further hypotheses take an origin in Eastern Europe ( Hungary ) or Georgia or Caucasus. The fact is that Gouais Blanc or Heunisch are among the most important ones leading varieties counts. The variety has its genes in numerous natural intersections passed. The Ampelographer Thierry Lacombe has in the Rebsortiment Domaine de Vassal in Montpellier determined by extensive DNA analyzes over 100 direct descendants. This has earned the variety the nickname "Casanova of Grapes". About 80 of them were created on French soil, which also speaks for the French origin. The rest comes from Bulgaria, Germany, Georgia, Greece, Moldova, Austria, Switzerland, Serbia, Slovenia, the Czech Republic and Hungary. Some of the numerous offspring are:
By far the most common crossing partners were Pinot varieties (Blanc, Gris or Noir), with which more than 30 other offspring have emerged. See a list below Pinot,
The medium maturing, very productive vine is resistant to frost but prone to Botrytis, The big grapes and juicy berries made her very popular as Esstraube. Due to the digestive or laxative effect, it was heartily referred to as a bedside shaker, laxative grape (lax = facilitate) or shit grape. It produces simple, acidic white wines with aromas of green apples and pears. The famous mystic Hildegard von Bingen (1098-1179) wrote as early as the 12th century, "that the Franconian and strong wine causes the blood to rise and must therefore be mixed with water, while the Hunnic and naturally watery wine is not necessary" . Highly valued for its abundance of yield, the vine reliably filled the barrels and is therefore considered "historic mass support ".
The variety was already widespread under countless names in the early Middle Ages. Their occurrence is from east to west in Czech Republic (Bohemia, Moravia), Hungary. Slovenia. Croatia. Austria. Italy (South-Tirol), Switzerland (where in the Wallis mentioned under "Gewess" 1540), Germany and France (especially in the northeast) documented documentary. There she was often together with Pinot and Traminer (Savagnin Blanc) grown. That is also the reason for the numerous descendants of these varieties. Due to the poor quality of the wine, Gouais Blanc and Elbling were later cleared and replaced with Franconian varieties.
An extraordinary find in 2003 caused a sensation among experts. The two biologists Andreas Young and dr. Erika Dettweiler (Maul) from the Institute Geilweilerhof (Palatinate) discovered in the municipalities Handschuhsheim, Dossenheim, Rohrbach and Leimen (Baden) four historic to 400 years old vineyards with a wealth of extremely rare grape varieties. Among them was in the Leimener Gewann "horror" the White Heunisch. The winery Georg Breuer in the Rheingau planted the variety in small quantities and made a wine from it. Other small stocks exist in France (Savoie), in Switzerland with the resulting pressed Gwäss, as well as in Italy (Piedmont) under the names Liseiret and Preveiral. In Austria There are a few sticks in the vine museum of Franz Leth (Wagram, Lower Austria).
Sources: Wine Grapes / J. Robinson, J. Harding, J. Vouillamoz / Penguin Books Ltd. 2012
Dr. Erika Maul - Julius Kühn-Institute (Institute of Vine Breeding Geilweilerhof / Pfalz)