The white grape variety probably comes from France. Around 180 Synonyms testify to the old age and the wide distribution of the vine in Europe. The most important, grouped alphabetically by country, are Bauernweinbeer, Bettschisser, Borzenauer, Branestraube, Braun, Braun Grape, Burgegger, Burger, Dickweiße, Dickwiss, Frankenthaler, Grobes, Grobes Saures, Grobwein, Grobweißer, Hensch, Heunisch, Heinisch, Heinsch, Hensch, Hentschler , Heunscher, Heunschler, Hinschen, Hintsch, Hunnentree, Hunsch, Hünsch, Hunschrebe, Huntsch, Hynsch, Hyntsch, Kleinberger, Laxiertraube, Flour White, Squarer, Scheißtraube, Thalburger, Thalburger Grünling, White Zapfner, Weißgrobe, Weißstock, Wippacher ( Germany and or Austria ); Blanc de Serres, Bon Blanc, Bouillan, Bouillaud, Bouilleaud, Enfariné Blanc, Foirard, Gauche Blanc, Goe, Goet, Goez, Goix, Gôt, Gouche, Gouche Blanche, Gouest Sauge, Gouet Blanc, Gouette, Gouget Blanc, Goys, Gros Blanc, Gueuche Blanc, Lisoera, Lombard Blanc, Moreau Blanc, Mouillet, Petit Gouge, Plant de Séchex, Plant Madame, Président, Provereau Blanc, Verdet, Verdin Blanc, Vionnier ( France ); Blanció, Liseiret, Preveiral ( Italy ); Belina, Belina Drobna, Krapinska Belina, Pikanina Bijela ( Croatia ); Gigante Branco ( Portugal ); Gouais Jaune, Gwäss ( Switzerland ); Hajnos ( Hungary ).
Despite apparently indicative synonyms or morphological It must not be similar to the varieties Orleans (Hartheunisch) or Ranfol be confused. The numerous grape varieties with part of the name "Heunisch" are not all related to each other. Most are no longer important and are only in vines for historical reasons (e.g. Geilweilerhof and Domaine de Vassal ). The Gouais Blanc (France) variety is genetically identical to Weißer Heunisch (Germany), although the development has been different.
Many of the synonyms mentioned above were partly used "crisscross" for several types of Heunisch. The German name Heunisch comes from the early Middle Ages and was allegedly first mentioned in the 11th century with "hunisce druben". He associates with the Huns and that they are said to have brought them to Europe. However, this hypothesis is difficult to prove. For many centuries, the terms "Heunisch" (for "rough") and " Frankish "(For" fine ") the only wine or quality designations and did not refer to a particular variety. A reliable mention was made in 1546 in Jerome's famous "Kreütter Buch" buck (1498-1554: "The big fat (thick) Hynische Draub, which are used for the sake of their quick worting, are used by quite a few fucking Draub." The varieties of the Heunisch group:
There are many hypotheses about the origin of the French name. The most likely one takes on a namesake municipality, the following being considered and named: Gouaix (Seine-et-Marne), Gouais-les-Saint-Bris (Yonne), Gouex (Vienne) or Goix (Nièvre). All four departments are located in central northern France. Therefore, the most likely origin thesis assumes that the variety originated here and then spread in Europe. The ampelograph Adrien already had this in 1903 Berget adopted, who had been intensively involved in the research of French vines. A second hypothesis derives the name from "gou", a derogatory dialect expression for the simple quality of the wines.
The hypothesis that they are emperors Probus (232-282) planted in Dalmatia and has spread from there is due to missing descendants in Croatia unlikely. Other hypotheses originate in Eastern Europe ( Hungary ) or Georgia or the Caucasus. The fact is that Gouais Blanc or Heunisch are the most important leading varieties counts. The variety has its genes in numerous natural ones intersections passed. The Ampelograph Thierry Lacombe has in the Domaine de Vassal range of vines Montpellier through extensive DNA analysis, found over 100 direct offspring. This earned the variety the nickname "Casanova of grapes". Around 80 of these were created on French soil, which also speaks for French origin. The rest comes from Bulgaria, Germany, Georgia, Greece, Moldova, Austria, Switzerland, Serbia, Slovenia, Czech Republic and Hungary. Some of the numerous offspring are:
By far the most common crossing partners were Pinot varieties (Blanc, Gris or Noir), with which over 30 other offspring were created. See a list below Pinot,
The medium-ripening, very productive vine is resistant to frost but prone to Botrytis, The large grapes and juicy berries made them very popular as a grape. Because of the digestive or laxative effect, she was heartily referred to as bed shit, laxative grape (laxate = relieve) or shit grape. It produces simple, acidic white wines with aromas of green apples and pears. The famous mystic Hildegard von Bingen (1098-1179) wrote as early as the 12th century "that the Franconian and strong wine makes the blood stand out and therefore has to be mixed with water, whereas this is not necessary with the Hun wine, which is naturally watery" . The vine, which is highly valued for its high yield, reliably filled the barrels and is therefore considered “more historical mass support ".
The variety was already widespread under countless names in the early Middle Ages. Their occurrence is in east to west Czech Republic (Bohemia, Moravia), Hungary. Slovenia. Croatia. Austria. Italy (South-Tirol), Switzerland (where in Wallis was mentioned under "Gewess" in 1540), Germany and France (especially in the northeast) documented. There she was often with Pinot and Traminer (Savagnin Blanc) grown. This is also the reason for the numerous offspring of these varieties. Due to the poor wine quality, Gouais Blanc and Elbling were later cleared and replaced by Franconian varieties.
An extraordinary find in 2003 caused a sensation among experts. The two biologists Andreas Young and Dr. Erika Dettweiler (Maul) from the institute Geilweilerhof (Palatinate) discovered four historical to 400 year old vineyards with a wealth of extremely rare grape varieties in the municipalities of Handschuhsheim, Dossenheim, Rohrbach and Leimen (Baden). Among them was the "Heunisch" in the Leimener Gewann "horror". The Georg winery Breuer in the Rheingau has planted the variety in small quantities and made a wine from it. There are further small stocks in France (Savoyen), in Switzerland with the one made from them Gwäss, as well as in Italy (Piedmont) under the names Liseiret and Preveiral. In Austria there are a few sticks in the Vine Museum of Franz Leth (Wagram, Lower Austria).
Sources: Wine Grapes / J. Robinson, J. Harding, J. Vouillamoz / Penguin Books Ltd. 2012
Dr. Erika Maul - Julius Kühn Institute (Institute for Vine Breeding Geilweilerhof / Pfalz)
Grapes and leaves: Ursula Brühl, Doris Schneider, Julius Kühn-Institut (JKI)