Description (also wine grape) for those grapes from vines who are responsible for the production of Wine or spirits how brandy ( Armagnac. cognac. Metaxa etc.) and even vodka are used (together around 85% worldwide). Other groups are those intended for consumption table grapes (Grapes) and raisins, There are about 8,000 to 10,000 different ones worldwide varieties, where the morphology ( leaf shape as well as size, nature and colour grapes or berries) is characteristic of the respective variety. The Rebstock developed during the annual growth cycle Grapes. As a rule, this takes place vintage at the best possible physiological maturity, at Prädikatswein types how late vintage. Beerenauslese. Trockenbeerenauslese or Eiswein this happens much later because it requires a special grape condition. There is one in particular in Austria and Germany sugar level of the grapes during the harvest is an important criterion for the later wine quality level (see under Mostgewicht ).
Strictly speaking, the term "grape" is actually wrong; because a grape has only secondary stems without branches. The correct botanical name would be panicle, The size, number of berries and the weight of a bunch of grapes, as well as the number of bunch of grapes and derived from it the yield per vine are different or dependent on vine. pruning. training system. weather conditions, Wine quality and wine type (see relevant formula under earnings ). Researchers at the Weinbauinstitut identified a study lasting several years vineyard the average number of berries per bunch of grapes of some classic grape varieties. The result: Sylvaner 110, Pinot Noir / Pinot Noir 115 Riesling 120 Kerner 140 Müller-Thurgau 160, Trollinger / Schiava Grossa 155 and Lemberger / Blaufränkisch 190 berries. There was a considerable fluctuation range across different vintages. For example, Lemberger was between 150 (2008) and 225 berries (2004), while Kerner, conversely, was between 125 (2004) and 200 (2008) per grape.
Depending on the fertility of almost all grape varieties, approx. 1.6 to 2.5 grapes develop per archery shoot, With a gate two-eyed spigot Depending on the variety, these values are slightly, but sometimes significantly lower. So would be, for example Gewurztraminer With about 0.5 to 0.8 grapes / shoots, fertility is extremely low. At the Dornfelder approximately 1 to 1.3 grapes / shoots are to be expected. Riesling also shows this cutting system with about 1.5 to 2 grapes per shoot a very high fertility. The average weight of a grape is 180 to 200 g (Riesling 100 to 200 g, Pinot Noir 150 to 230 g, Blaufränkisch 180 to 280 g). A vine with 8 to 12 grapes gives a total weight of 1.5 to 2.5 kg. That makes 1.5 to 2 bottles Wine with the standard volume of 0.75 l.
The one through that Press (Pressing) grape forms the basis for the wines. The backlog is called rape (Grains), the sediment after the fermentation as lees designated. Both become through distillation high quality fires. The grape sits on a short stem, which is on the stem frame (comb or black horse, bot. Pedunculus). At the opposite end there is a dead tissue on the surface, which represents the rest of the stylus and the stigma (female organ) of the former flower bud. The number of berries per bunch of grapes is partly due to the course of the growth cycle and grape variety and can be several dozen to 600 or more berries. compact, dichtbeerige Grapes are prone to fungal diseases and bunch rot, therefore is a certain looseness of advantageous.
From every single flower of a note arises, provided that one has occurred fertilization a grape. Under the berry skin is the connection to the stem of the slugs (light pulp). These include the darker pulp (pericarp and mesocarp) and the fruit juice (grape must). Except for the red-fleshed ones Teinturier varieties the pulp is independent of the colour the berry skin (bellows) always light to gray. The berries contain the main components ( water. acids. sugar etc.) or other ingredients of the future wine and give it its character (see total extract ). In the center of the berry is the core chamber with usually two to three, in rare cases up to five or a maximum of six cores. A different grape variety can potentially arise from each of the seeds (see under blossom and flower bud ).
So-called seedless Berries at table grapes Are also desirable, contain kernels, but smaller in smaller numbers, and of a soft consistency, so that you can hardly feel them when consumed. The kernels are not so important for winemaking, they also contain tannins. At the White wine they are usually separated from the grape must with all other solid parts when pressed. Especially with red wine it comes through the maceration for longer contact between must and mash and thus also with the kernels. The cores are also used by individual producers for the extraction of grape oil used.
There is a direct connection between the size of the berries and the quality of the wine, which is particularly beneficial for red wines if they are made from small-grapes. The berry skin (pod or bellows = exocarp) contains the important, taste-determining substances anthocyanins (Dyes) and phenols such as B. tannins, In the case of smaller berries, these substances make up a higher proportion due to the resulting better surface-to-volume ratio. Potentially good wine grapes increase in comparison table grapes (which when used as a wine grape make a rather simple wine) actually much smaller berries. On average, the weight of a high quality Cépages Classy wine berry one to two, for smaller varieties up to ten grams. The vineyard is also trying to take measures like deliberately brought about water stress and thereby smaller berries to achieve a higher quality. An important quality criterion is also a balanced ratio of the shares of sugar and (especially with white wine) acids,
All tools, work and measures in the vineyard during the growth cycle can be found at Weingarten Care, Complete lists of the numerous cellar techniques, as well as a list of wine, sparkling wine and distillate types regulated by wine law are under the keyword winemaking contain. There is extensive wine law information under the keyword wine law,
Grape varieties: Ursula Brühl, Doris Schneider, Julius Kühn-Institut (JKI)
Weinbeere oben: From fr: Yelkrokoyade - author, CC BY-SA 3.0 , Link
Grape below: By Mariana Ruiz Villarreal ( LadyofHats ), public domain , link
edited by Norbert Tischelmayer, March 2019