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grape (GB)
raisin, grappe (F)
grappolo d`uva (I)
uva (ES)
druif (N)
uva (PO)

Term (also Keltertraube) for those grapes of vines which is responsible for the production of Wine or spirits as brandy ( Armagnac. cognac. Metaxa etc.) and even vodka (around 85% worldwide). Other groups are those intended for consumption table grapes (Food grapes) and raisins, There are about 8,000 to 10,000 different worldwide varieties, where the morphology ( leaf shape as well as size, texture and colour the grapes or berries) is characteristic of the respective variety. Of the Rebstock developed during the course of the annual growth cycle Grapes. As a rule, the vintage at the best possible physiological maturity, at Prädikatswein types as late vintage. Beerenauslese. Trockenbeerenauslese or Eiswein This happens much later because it requires a special grape condition. Especially in Austria and Germany is a certain sugar level Grapes at grape harvest are an important criterion for the subsequent wine quality level (see below) Mostgewicht ).

Grapevine - grape, vine and vineyard

Texture of the grape

Strictly speaking, the term "grape" is actually wrong; for a grape possesses only secondary branches without branches. The correct botanical name would be panicle, The size, the number of berries and the weight of a bunch of grapes, as well as the number of grapes and derived therefrom the amount of yield per vine are different or dependent on vine. pruning. training system. weather conditions, Wine quality and type of wine (see the relevant formula under earnings ). Through a multi-year study, researchers of the Weinbauinstituts determined vineyard the average number of berries per grape of some classic grape varieties. The result: Sylvaner 110, Pinot Noir / Pinot Noir 115 Riesling 120 Kerner 140 Müller-Thurgau 160, Trollinger / Schiava Grossa 155 and Lemberger / Blaufränkisch 190 berries. There was a considerable variation over different vintages. For example, Lemberger was between 150 (2008) and 225 berries (2004), while Kerner was the other way around between 125 (2004) and 200 (2008) per grape.

Grape varieties - six most common types of dairy - Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Airén, Tempranillo, Chardonnay, Syrah / Shiraz

In the Bogrebenschnitt develop depending on the fertility in almost all grape varieties usually about 1.6 to 2.5 grapes per shoot, In a two-eyed start spigot Depending on the variety, these values are slightly, but sometimes significantly lower. For example, that would be the case Gewurztraminer with about 0.5 to 0.8 grapes / shoot fertility extremely low. At the Dornfelder is to be reckoned with about 1 to 1.3 grapes / shoot. Riesling also shows this cutting system with about 1.5 to 2 grapes per shoot still a very high fertility. The average weight of a grape is 180 to 200 g (Riesling 100 to 200 g, Pinot Noir 150 to 230 g, Blaufränkisch 180 to 280 g). A vine with 8 to 12 grapes results in a total weight of 1.5 to 2.5 kg. That gives 1.5 to 2 bottles Wine with the standard volume of 0.75 l.

The one by the Press (Keltern) won grape forms the basis for the wines. The residue is called rape (Marc), the dregs after the fermentation when lees designated. Both are going through distillation produced high quality fires. The grape berry sits on a short stem, which is located on the stem skeleton (ridge or pedunculus, bot., Pedunculus). At the opposite end is on the surface of a dead tissue, which represents the rest of the stylus and the scar (female organ) of the former flower bud. The number of berries per grape is among other things by the course of the growth cycle and varietal and may range from several dozen to 600 or more berries. compact, dichtbeerige Grapes are prone to fungal diseases and bunch rot That's why there is a certain looseness of advantageous.

Texture of the berry

Every single flower of a bounty is created under the condition of a successful one fertilization a grapeberry. Under the berry skin is the connection to the stem of the slit (bright pulp). Among them are the darker pulp (pericarp and mesocarp) and the fruit juice (grape must). Except for the rotfleischigen Teinturier varieties the pulp is independent of the colour the berry skin (bellows) always light to gray. The berries contain the main components ( water. acids. sugar etc.) or other ingredients of the future wine and give it its character (see total extract ). In the center of the berry is the core chamber with mostly two to three, in rare cases up to five or a maximum of six nuclei. From each of the kernels can potentially arise a different grape variety (see under blossom and flower bud ).

Grape - development from flowering to berry

So-called seedless Berries at table grapes are also cores, but smaller in number, as well as of soft consistency, so you hardly feel it when eating. The kernels are not so important to winemaking, they also contain tannin. At the White wine they are usually separated with all other solid parts when pressing the grape must. Especially when red wine it comes through the maceration for longer contact of must and mash and thus also with the kernels. The cores are also used by individual producers for the production of grape oil used.

Grape varieties - four most common table grapes - Afus Ali, Muscat d'Alexandrie, Sultana, Cardinal

Criteria for wine quality

There is a direct relationship between berry size and wine quality, which especially benefits red wines when pressed from small-berry grapes. The berry skin (husk or bellows = Exokarp) contains the important, taste-determining substances anthocyanins (Dyes) and phenols such as B. tannins, For smaller berries, these substances account for a higher proportion due to the resulting better surface area to volume ratio. Potentially good wine grapes lift compared to table grapes (which when used as Keltertarube make a rather simple wine) actually much smaller berries. On average, the weight is a high quality Cépages Classy wine berry one to two, with minor varieties up to ten grams. In the vineyard is also tried by measures such as deliberately induced water stress and thereby achieve smaller berries a higher quality. An important criterion of qua- lity is also a balance between the proportions of sugar and (especially with white wine) acids,

Grape - Ingredients (Sugars, Acids, Phenols, Flavorings)

Additional information

All aids, works and measures in the vineyard during the growth cycle one finds below Weingarten Care, Complete listings of the numerous cellar techniques, as well as a list of the wine-regulated wine, sparkling wine and distillate types are under the keyword winemaking contain. Comprehensive information on wine law is available under the keyword wine law,

Grape varieties: Ursula Bruehl, Doris Schneider, Julius Kühn Institute (JKI)
Grape top: From fr: Yelkrokoyade - author, CC BY-SA 3.0 , link
Grape Bottom: By Mariana Ruiz Villarreal ( LadyofHats ), Public Domain , Link
edited by Norbert Tischelmayer, March 2019

World's largest wine knowledge database, made with by our author Norbert Tischelmayer.

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