The white grape variety comes from Austria. The most important of the approximately 80 Synonyms alphabetically grouped by country are Valtelin Blanc, Valteliner Blanc, Valteliner Blanc, Valteliner Vert, Veltliner Verde ( France ); Green Valtellina ( New Zealand ); Dreimänner, Falkensteiner, Feldlinger, Grauer Veltliner, Grüner, Green Muscat, GrüVe, GV, Manhardsrebe, Manhardt grape, Manhartsrebe, Mauhardsrebe, Mouhardrebe, Veltliner, White, White Reifler, Weißgipfler = second main name ( Austria ); Bielospicak, Veltlinské Zelené ( Slovakia ); Zeleni Veltinec ( Slovenia ); Veltliner ( South-Tirol ); Veltlinské Zelené ( Czech Republic ); Zöld Veltelini, Fehérhegyü ( Hungary ).
Low genetic traits suggested that the central Veltliner variety Red Veltliner a grandparent is. Made in 1998 DNA analysis of the Austrian biologist Ferdinand Regner became the Traminer identified as a parent. In 2000, a very old vine was discovered in the Burgenland municipality of St. Georgen. The previously unknown variety was St. Georgen and is after 2007 DNA analyzes Regner's the second parent. Whether father or mother, but remains open. However, the genes or properties of the St. Georgen have prevailed much more strongly than those of the Traminers.
Grüner Veltliner is with most others Veltliner places. if anything, only distantly related. This already noticed Hermann Goethe (1837-1911) in 1887 in his handbook of ampelography with the words "that he does not belong botanically to the family of the Velteliner" . The ethymological origin of "Veltliner" is unclear, among other things, "Feldlinger" is called. A frequently assumed reference to the Valtellina (Italian Valtellina) in the Lombardy is in any case obsolete due to the clarified lineage. The current name was first mentioned in 1855, but finally prevailed only in the 1930s. Before the variety was usually called "Weißgipfler" or "Green Muskateller", although they have no nutmeg having. The Ampelographer Balthasar sprinkler (1724-1791) mentioned in 1766 a "Green Muscatel" from Ödenburg, which corresponds to the Grüner Veltliner. According to DNA analyzes carried out in 1996, Grauer Veltliner is one mutation :
In the middle of the 19th century the Grüner Veltliner was around Retz in the Weinviertel, at the Brno street and Horner road is widely used. There he replaced the mass carrier white Heunisch ( Gouais blanc ). Until the Second World War, however, he was only sporadically represented in Austria. Only with the introduction of the Weinbaupionier Lenz Moser III. (1905-1978) created High culture-Cultivation it spread rapidly from the 1950s and became the dominant strain. With 13,518 hectares recorded in 2009, the variety accounts for around 30% of the total vineyard area; the tendency is falling. The variety is cultivated in all Austrian wine regions, especially in the "Veltliner Land" (Weinviertel). The importance of the Grüner Veltliner in Austria was demonstrated by the original wine introduced in 2003 Weinviertel DAC underlined, soon after that more from this variety called Kamptal DAC. Kremstal DAC and Traisental DAC followed.
The medium to late ripening, high yielding vine is prone to both mildews, It makes no great claim to the ground (not too dry or wet), it thrives on meager and fertile soils as well. The flexible variety is well suited for primitive soils, such as in the Wachau and in Kremstal, Loess soils such. B. in Kremstal and Wagram, but also heavy clay and clay soils such. In the Weinviertel, Regarding climate and soil, the Austrian conditions are almost ideal. The variety produces fruity-spicy white wines with aromas of citrus, peach and almond clay on prolonged expansion. The spicy aroma is liked in Austria as " peppery " designated. With appropriate expansion, there is good storage potential. The classic Grüner Veltliner is sold in Austria " bone-dry "Expanded, but also finds sweet Prädikatsweine and sparkling wines use. There are a variety of different requirements Clone (see below Mössmer clone ).
Other European countries with cultivated areas are Bulgaria. Germany (7 ha), France. Italy (165 ha), Croatia. Romania (1 ha), Slovakia (2,091 ha), Slovenia. Czech Republic (1,527 ha) and Hungary (1,533 ha). In the United States The variety is called Gruner Veltliner (without umlaut) in the states California. Maryland. Oregon. Pennsylvania and Washington cultivated in small quantities. There are more stocks overseas in Argentina (8 ha), Australia and New Zealand, In 2010, a total of 18,849 hectares of vineyards were recorded with decreasing trend (in 2000, there were 23,604 hectares). The variety was in the world varieties ranking on the 41st rank
Pictures: Ursula Bruehl, Doris Schneider, Julius Kühn Institute (JKI)