See below training system,
By this one understands different methods, in a specific form the growth of the grapevine to steer. The Rebstock is a climbing plant (Liana), which can not hold itself upright and therefore requires a climbing aid or support structure. The Wild vinesentwine mostly up to young trees and grow with them in the air. For longer management and for the possible use of machinery, the vines must retain their shape and must not (what they would do) grow ever higher. That is why man began thousands of years ago shoots to shorten and artificial support facilities such as piles or sticks, racks and laths with taut strings or wires to use. A decisive measure in the winter break (Rest time) is the pruning in which the one-year wood is pruned. With annual measures (winter cut, summer cut and foliage care ) will assess the impact of apical dominance counteracted in order to maintain the chosen educational system.
From pictorial representations it is proven that already the Egyptian have consciously pulled vines for wine production. A well-known example is that of the tomb of Chaemwese in Thebes around 1450 BC. There are various wine making steps such as grape picking and fermentation in containers, as well as the loading of a ship with amphorae shown. The canopy-shaped overhead form of education shown in the picture is similar to one Pergola- or. Trellis educational system, Most finds come from the modern city of Luxor in Upper Egypt. A private winery is described in inscriptions from the tomb of Metjen, a senior official in the 4th Dynasty (2620-2500 BCE). In Sakkara, in the Nile delta, he owned a large estate with vineyards, which are described in the inscription as follows: A very large pond was created, figs and grapes were planted. Trees and grapes were planted in large quantities and a lot of wine was made from it .
In the Romans beams were laid on four vertically arranged piles, so that a kind of chamber was created. This historical education with the modifications as closed or open Kammertbau was still in the early 20th century in German viticulture in the palatinate common. The picture on the right shows a medieval depiction of works in the vineyard around the year 1180. Obviously, this is probably the form that was widespread at that time in many countries Single pile education,
The criteria for choosing the ideal form of education are, in addition to traditional practices, the soil type, the desired earnings, the climatic Relationships that vine with their vigor and tendency to grow in height or width, the easier control or preventive prevention of Vine diseases as well as the requirements of management. A particular system is also often required by wine law. In the Champagne For example, only four specific education systems are even allowed depending on the grape variety. In the second half of the 20th century, the forms of education have changed drastically. The focus was on rationalization and the requirements of a mechanized Weingarten Care,
The goal of all educational systems is to achieve the best possible foliage wall structure in order to ensure the desired quality and quantity, economic advantages and make optimum use of existing environmental resources. For the selection of the education system is also decisive, among other things, whether wine grapes for one winemaking or table grapes to be produced for consumption and which harvesting method (manual or mechanical) is used. The individual forms of education will depend, among other things, on the height of the trunk, on the distance between the vines, on the manner of attachment of the newly growing fruited shoots, or on the inventor (such as Jules Guyot ) named.
Through the wintry pruning determine where and how many new shoots grow from the remaining winter buds in the spring, from which the shape of the vine develops. Regarding the choice of the education system, the following points have an influence on the grape or later wine quality:
The height of the grape zone is a factor in the workload and susceptibility to certain Vine enemies, The closer to ground, the more laborious the care and the more likely it can be in rainy areas mushrooms on the grapes arrive and above all Botrytis, Wrong mildew and black rot cause. An advantage in northern areas is an earlier one maturity, The grape zone is between 80 and 130 centimeters and higher. The height has an effect on the exposition (the angle of sunlight) and thus the distance between the individual Rows of vines,
The chosen system should have a good foliage wall structure. As much as possible leaves should be exposed to direct sunlight during the day. When the leaves are in the shade, they sink Phototosyntheseleistung,
The pole distance...