This higher education system was developed in Austria from the winery owner Laurenz (Lenz) Moser III. (1905-1978) in the 1930s in his own vineyard in Rohrendorf im Kremstal (Lower Austria) developed. After study trips to European wine-growing areas, he took over what was then the family wine estate in 1929. Today, however, it no longer belongs to Lenz Moser family and operates under Lenz Moser AG, From the end of the 1920s, Moser undertook experiments with a long-line education system supported by wire frames, which he called high culture and which, according to him, is also known today as Moser culture. From 1936 this was used exclusively in our own company. After a severe winter frost (against which the system offers protection) in 1956, high culture finally prevailed. It is used on 90% of Austria's vineyards as well as in many wine-growing areas in Europe and overseas. Out of gratitude, Lenz Mosser erected a memorial in Rohrendorf in 1980 by the Austrian winegrowers.
The vines were set at relatively wide distances of 3.00 to 3.30 meters (1 floor 3 to 4 m² = around 3,000 floors / ha) and 1.00 to 1.30 meters high wire frame drawn (wide-range education). Due to the lower number of vines per hectare compared to the stock culture, the vines have to have a higher number earnings to achieve the same area performance compared to denser planting. Every stick needs more shoots develop, but also what more Scroll means. To be sufficient exposition To ensure (solar radiation), the shoots were divided (1/3 left, 1/3 in the middle in wire pairs, 1/3 right). From today's perspective, this is a hindrance to the use of mechanical devices such as Grape harvesters and leaf cutting facilities. That is why the three-leaf division is no longer practiced today.
When cutting the crown with crossbeams (therefore also high culture with cross yoke) and two additional tension wires, the cut fruit wood is distributed across. Due to the resulting unfavorable distribution of leaves and hardly any mechanical processing, this shape is no longer important.
With a similar angle rod cut , the long fruit rods are attached at an angle using a bending wire. Due to similar disadvantages as in crown education, this form is no longer important.
In the case of a two-prong cut (or double flat arch ), long stretches (flat arches) are cut horizontally in both directions on the 1 to 1.30 meter high trunk and attached to the tensioning wire. On a trunk with a height of 1 m to 1.30 m, stretchers (flat arches) of more or less length are cut and fastened on the tensioning wire in both directions. As a rule, a strong vine must be cut longer with the front eye down and a weak vine shorter with the front eye up. This form is an advantage for all manual work, since it can be done standing up. It is very similar to that espalier with slightly higher tribes.
In the case of half-arch cutting , a long half-arch is cut in one or both directions on the trunk, which is 1 to 1.30 meters high, and attached to the tension wire. Compared to the two-line cut, more eyes can be cut. In addition, the grape zone is spread over a higher zone.
With the heart cut (was the standard form in the former Eastern Bloc), two half-arches and two full-arches are cut at a height of 1 meter. High yields can be achieved with these four long fruit rods.
Lenz Moser: Photo studio Gartler, Krems an d. D., CC BY-SA 3.0 , Link
Pruning: From Unknown - Krems Wine School, GFDL 1.2 , Link
Archetype: By Bauer Karl - Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0 , Link
Crowns: By Bauer Karl - Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0 , Link
Winkelruten: By Bauer Karl - Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0 , Link
Double stretcher: By Bauer Karl - Own work, CC BY 3.0 , Link
Half-arch: By Bauer Karl - Own work, CC BY 3.0 , Link
Herz: By Bauer Karl - Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0 , Link