Biogenic amine from the amino acid Histidine. The histamine is formed mainly during the spoilage of food and also arises in the alcoholic fermentation, The main cause of the wine is the degradation of proteins by certain bacteria at the main fermentation. In the output must occur, if at all, only in the smallest quantities. Red wines are generally higher in value than white wines. A higher concentration is due to lack of cellar hygiene, an uncontrolled spontaneous malolactic fermentation and longer storage in wooden barrels. Histamine can almost completely by means of bentonite be removed. Possible positive effects are vasodilation and thus better blood circulation and lowering of blood pressure, stimulation of gastric juice secretion, as well as improvement of memory performance.
There is one less than 1% of the population allergy due to a disturbed breakdown mechanism of histamine. The negative effect are a headache (Feeling of tension), hot flashes, difficulty breathing, runny nose, low blood pressure with increased heart rate and stomach and intestinal complaints with diarrhea. The tolerance limit is about 2 mg / l of wine. An extremely low histamine content is a quality feature. In wine, however, it is normally present in far smaller quantities than in fish (sardines, tuna), hard cheese, sauerkraut, chocolate and tomatoes. Together with histamine also occur the substances cadaverine. putrescine. spermidine. tryptamine and tyramine on. Information such as "histamine-poor", "histamine-free" or the like is inadmissible for all products of viticulture. See also below alcoholism and health,