Biogenic amine from the amino acid Histidine. Histamine is primarily formed during the spoilage of food and also arises from alcoholic fermentation, The main cause of wine is the breakdown of proteins by certain bacteria during the main fermentation. It occurs in the output must, if at all, only in the smallest quantities. Red wines generally have higher values than white wines. A higher concentration is on a lack of basement hygiene, an uncontrolled spontaneous one malolactic fermentation and longer storage in wooden barrels. However, histamine can be used almost completely bentonite be removed. Possible positive effects are vasodilation and thus better blood circulation and lowering of blood pressure, stimulation of gastric juice secretion, as well as improvement of memory performance.
Less than 1% of the population has one allergy due to an impaired histamine degradation mechanism. The negative effects are a headache (Feeling of tension), hot flashes, difficulty breathing, runny nose, low blood pressure with increased heart rate and stomach and intestinal complaints with diarrhea. The tolerance limit is around 2 mg / l wine. An extremely low histamine content is a quality feature. However, it is usually contained in much smaller amounts in wine than in fish (sardines, tuna), hard cheese, sauerkraut, chocolate and tomatoes. The substances also appear together with histamine cadaverine. putrescine. spermidine. tryptamine and tyramine on. Information such as "low in histamine", "free of histamine" or the like is not permitted for all viticultural products. See also under alcoholism and health,