Term for one that occurs mainly with red wines wine faults, for which there are many other names. These are Apeshit (South Africa), Bodenton (see geosmin ), Brett, Hansaplast, dog sweat, leather tone, medical tone, wet dog, wet fur, wet leather, horse stable, horse tone, phenol tone, saddle tone, sweat socks, stable smell and tar clay. This proves that the error was often not clearly identified in the past or was not classified as an error at all. It occurs in internationally renowned red wines, in Belgian beers and in ciders as a perfectly accepted typical aroma.
It was only through scientific analysis that all these false tones could be the same microorganisms be identified as the cause. Horse sweat often occurs together with the wine defect Mäuseln on. The faulty tone is more pronounced in red wines, the one Barrique especially with new barrels and / or one Maceration carbonique (Carbonic acid maceration). The main causes are poor hygiene such as dirty wooden barrels and / or insufficient use of sulfur.
The causative yeast genus is called Brettanomyces (from which "Brett" is derived) or Dekkera. With the species Brettanomyces bruxellensis is a slowly fermenting, highly alcohol-compatible and non-spore-forming species. In addition to the usual sugars, this can also process the normally non-fermentable cellubiosis and xylose, which are newer in the wood structure barriques are included. It can also multiply without any sugar residues, because ethanol and volatile acids sufficient as food. This type of yeast is found in all wine-growing regions of the world, although it is preferred in warmer regions. It forms various ethylphenols in the metabolism. A specific side effect also arises acetic acid,
In 2004, three substances were identified as the leading lead substances for horse sweat and the typical taste sensations. Already with the specified Perceptual thresholds the typical aromas can be seen in the microgram range (millionths of a gram). A negative influence already occurs when the sum of the latter two is over 425 µg / l:
With a low expression or a correspondingly favorable quantitative ratio of the three key substances, the aroma is expressed as pleasant smoky. leathery Smell of cloves, He is called animalisch or earthy described what the type of alcohol geosmin is involved. There is the catchphrase “a little board is nice” because this is perceived as positive by quite a few consumers. This note is for many Australian and South African wines from the grape variety Syrah typical. There and also in Bordeaux, this is even seen as a typical characteristic of the soil (hence soil tone) or the type of expansion.
There are even wineries that specifically inoculate their barrels with Brettanomyces mushrooms to deliberately create this tone. In Austria this is the term to be understood positively Stinkerl used. Most experts, however, reject the clay in principle and consider it to a lesser extent as an intolerable wine error due to a lack of it hygiene, In addition to the above positive aromas, the wine has a sweet, pungent and acidic tone that is penetrating to horse sweat or stable, vinegar, Pharmacy, burnt beans, smoked bacon, clay and tar reminds.
through filtration the Brettanomyces yeast can be completely removed from the wine, but not the leading substances causing the error, because they are in dissolved form. If such wines are bottled unfiltered, the yeast can also multiply in the bottle. The germs survive in the pores of wood, Weinstein and other sediment residues of the emptied barrel until the next filling. Old and unkempt barriques are therefore ideal nesting places for Brettanomyces yeast.
When expanding in stainless steel tanks As is usually the case with white wines, the wine error horse sweat hardly occurs. An effective preventive measure is sulphurize the wooden barrels through a Dry- or wet preservation, The preservative is another contraceptive dimethyldicarbonate used. Control is carried out using PVPP (Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone). Through the PNA FISH method Brettanomyces can be detected in wine. See a list of all false tones below wine faults,