Designation for one especially with red wines occurring wine faults, for which there are many more names. These are Apeshit (South Africa), Bodenton (see geosmin ), Board, Hansaplast, dog sweat, leather tone, medical clay, wet dog, wet coat, wet leather, horse stable, horse tone, phenol tone, saddle clay, sweat socks, stall smell and tar clay. This proves that the error was often not recognized clearly in the past or not at all classified as an error. He appears in internationally renowned red wines, in Belgian beers and in ciders as well accepted typical flavor.
Only through scientific analysis could the same with all these false tones microorganisms be identified as a cause. Not infrequently, horse sweat occurs together with Mäuseln on. Reinforced is the false note in red wines, the one Barrique especially with new barrels and / or one Macération carbonique (Carbonic maceration) were subjected. The main causes are poor hygiene such as unclean wood barrels and / or too little sulfur.
The causative yeast genus is called Brettanomyces (from which "Brett" derives) or Dekkera. At the species Brettanomyces bruxellensis is a slow-fermenting, highly alcohol-compatible and non-spore-forming species. In addition to the usual sugars, it can also process the normally unwholesome cellulosic and xylose, which are contained in the wood structure of new oak barrels. It can also multiply without any sugar residues, since ethanol and volatile acids suffice as food. This type of yeast is found in all winegrowing regions of the world, where it occurs preferentially in warmer areas. It forms different ethylphenols during metabolism. As a specific side effect also arises acetic acid,
In 2004, three substances were identified as causative lead substances for horse sweat and the typical taste sensations. Already at the specified Perceptual thresholds in the microgram range (millionths of a gram) the typical aromas are recognizable. A negative influence already takes place if the sum of the latter two exceeds 425 μg / l:
With low expression or a correspondingly favorable ratio of the three main substances, the aroma is expressed by a pleasant smoky. leathery Smell after cloves, He is called animalisch or earthy described, including the alcohol geosmin is involved. There is the slogan "a little board is nice", because that is perceived by quite a few consumers as positive. This note is for many Australian and South African wines from the grape Syrah typical. There, and also in Bordeaux, this is even regarded as a typical area characteristic of the soil (therefore also Bodenton) or the expansion.
There are even wineries who intentionally inoculate their barrels with Brettanomyces mushrooms to deliberately create that clay. In Austria, this is the term to be understood Stinkerl used. However, most experts reject the tone in principle, and consider it in minor form as an intolerable wine error due to lack of hygiene, The wine has, in addition to the above positive flavors, a sweetish-tart and sourish note that is penetrating to horse sweat or horse stable, vinegar, Pharmacy, burnt beans, smoked bacon, alumina and tar reminds.
through filtration Although the Brettanomyces yeasts can be completely removed from the wine, but not the fault-causing lead substances, because they are present in dissolved form. If such wines bottled unfiltered, the yeasts can also multiply in the bottle. The germs survive in the pores of wood, Weinstein and other sediment remains of the emptied barrel until the next filling. Old and neglected oak barrels are therefore ideal nesting sites for Brettanomyces yeasts.
For a development in steel tanks, as is usually the case for white wines, therefore, the wine error horse sweat hardly occurs. An effective preventive measure is sulphurize the wooden barrels by one Dry- or wet preservation, Another contraceptive is the preservative dimethyldicarbonate used. A fight takes place by means of PVPP (Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone). By the PNA FISH method Brettanomyces can be detected in the wine. See a list of all the errors below wine faults,