Hungary has a very old viticulture culture, because wines from Sopron and Eger were already known in the 13th century. The Greeks led the viticulture in Hungary from the southeast the Danube and its tributary Tisza up and the Romans from the west across the Pannonian plain to Lake Balaton. In spite of Huns, Vandals, Goths, Tatars and Ottomans over many centuries, wine was always grown in this area. Even the Ottomans, who occupied most of the country for about 160 years, repressed despite alcohol ban Viticulture did not like to pay taxes, but development was hampered during this period. According to a rather legendary tradition Kaiser should Charlemagne (742-814) had been so enthusiastic about the "Awarenwein" that he had some vines brought to Germany.
By the Hungarian King Matthias Corvinus (1440-1490), who in his last five years of life in Wien (Austria) resided, is the statement handed down, "that the whole people should have wine and the wine growers are to be respected highly". In the Middle Ages, as in almost all other countries, the Catholic Church also played a major role in the spread of viticulture and wine culture in Hungary. Decisively associated with the wine history of Hungary is the famous Tokaj, After Phylloxera disaster and during the two world wars people relocated to the production of mass wines, Since the political upheavals of the year 1989 and a reestablishment of the viticulture federation it went however with the viticulture up again steeply upwards.
It has a Central European, continental climate with hot summers and cold winters. The latitude corresponds to the French Burgundy, which yields aromatic white wines. Around 2,000 hours of sunshine per year also benefit the production of red wines. The Danube, which flows from north to south, divides the land into two large halves. With the Wine Law of 1997, 22 wine regions were defined. To the west is Transdanubia , which borders on Austria. Slovenia and Croatia in the west to the Danube. In the center is the Balaton (Lake Balaton), the largest lake in Central Europe with 591 km². Together with Lake Neusiedl and the Danube a positive climatic influence on viticulture is exercised. Transdanubia consists of four wine-growing regions with 15 vineyards:
Észak Dunantul (Northern Transdanubia)
In the southeast between the Danube and the Tisza lies the large Pannonian lowland with sandy, steppe-like soil, called in the Hungarian Alföld . The vineyards exert a strengthening influence on the soil. In summer, crops are often endangered drought and in the winter frost, The Duna region has three vineyards:
The Northern Massif lies to the north in the foothills of the Mátra Mountains near the border with the Slovakia, The two regions with their vineyards:
With almost 70% of its production, Hungary is predominantly a white wine country, although the red wine variety Kékfrankos ( Blaufränkisch ) clearly dominates. The Tokajersorte Furmint ranks after the Olasz Rizling (Welschriesling) only in third place. In 2012, the vineyards covered 52,000 hectares, which since 2000 means more than a halving (at that time it was 126,000 hectares). Of these, 1.818 million hectoliters of wine were produced (see also under Wine production volumes ). The Blend 2010 (Statistics Kym Anderson ):
|vine variety||Synonyms / Hungarian name||colour||hectare|
|Bianca||Egri Csillagok 40||White||2922|
|Chasselas||Chasselas Piros, Fehér Chasselas, Saszla||White||1892|
|Green Valtellina||Zöld Veltelini||White||1533|
|Muscat Ottonel||Ottonel Muskotály||White||1232|
|Blue Portuguese||Kék Oportó, Kék Portugizi||red||1216|
|Arany Sárfehér||Izsáki Sárfehér||White||1133|
|Pinot Noir||Kék Burgundi, Kisburgundi||red||1091|
|Gewurztraminer / Traminer||Füszeres Tramini, Piros Tramini / Tramini||White||772|
|Aletta||Egri Csillagok 18||White||723|
|Muscat Blanc / muscatel||Muskotály||White||709|
|Pinot Blanc||Fehér Burgundi||White||237|
|Jubilee 75||Jubilejne 75, Kecskemét 11, Miklostelep 11||White||194|
|Medina||Egri Csillagok 7, Medea||red||151|
|Menoir||formerly Kékmedoc or Médoc Noir||red||65|
|Grasă de Cotnari||Kövérszölö||White||37|
The information on the label are mostly short and sweet. The place name with the ending "i" (which corresponds to the German "he") is usually added to the grape variety, for example Soproni Kékfrankos (Blaufränkischer from Sopron).
Wine categories : In August 2009, the EU wine market regulations became valid for all member countries with fundamental changes to the wine names and quality levels. There are the following new names or quality levels (see also in detail under quality system ):
OFJ (Oltalom alatt álló Földrajzi Jelzés Bor) :
There are 13 rural wine areas marked by a blue and yellow seal on the label.
OEM (Oltalom alatt álló Eredetmegjelölésü Bor) :
There are 33 quality wine areas marked by an orange-red seal on the label. The first DHC area was Villány in 2006; then followed Eger, Tihany, Somló and Izsák.
Special wine names / types